CFD Based Aerodynamics Conjugate Heat Transfer and Airgap Fluid Flow Thermal Analysis to a Wheel Hub Motor for Electric Scooters

Arun Mambazhasseri Divakaran, Essam Abo-Serie, Evangelos Gkanas, James Jewkes, Simon Shepherd

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

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The geometry of commercially available wheel hub motors inherently restricts packaging space and may prevent the introduction of more sophisticated, efficient, and expensive cooling systems. Due to the limited available space in the wheels, commercial hub motors often rely on aerodynamic passive cooling. The small air-gap (0.5–1 mm) between the coils and the magnets results in heat transfer to the magnets and consequently increases their temperature. As a result, the perfe- ormance of the permanent magnets (PMs) will be limited and also will heavily affect their lifetime; thus, advanced cooling strategies must be introduced. In the current study, a three-dimensional (3D) thermal model was developed for a commercially available 500 W scooter hub motor under a constant heat load of 180 W using Compu- tational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) (= 64%).The spatial distribution of the temperature for the motor parts are evaluated considering both the internal and external fluid flow dynamics. Further, analysis of airflow in the the gap is performed and the results from the CFD is compared with the published correlations. The flow in such small motor was found to be laminar with Taylor number below 40. Results also showed that enhancement of the cooling is necessary to avoid damage of the winding vernish and to reduce the magnets temperature particularly when the motor works at high torque with low efficiency.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEnergy and Sustainable Futures
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the 3rd ICESF, 2022
Editors Jonathan D. Nixon, Amin Al-Habaibeh, Vladimir Vukovic, Abhishek Asthana
Number of pages9
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-031-30960-1
ISBN (Print)978-3-031-30959-5
Publication statusPublished - 17 Aug 2023
Event3rd International Conference on Energy and Sustainable Futures (ICESF) - Coventry University, Coventry, United Kingdom
Duration: 7 Sept 20228 Sept 2022

Publication series

NameSpringer Proceedings in Energy
ISSN (Print)2352-2534
ISSN (Electronic)2352-2542


Conference3rd International Conference on Energy and Sustainable Futures (ICESF)
Abbreviated titleICESF 2022
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom
Internet address

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  • Thermal management
  • Computational fluid dynamics
  • Taylor’s correlations
  • Outer-rotor machines


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