Cardiovascular Biomarkers: Lessons of the Past and Prospects for the Future

Farah Omran, Ioannis Kyrou, Faizel Osman, Ven Gee Lim, Harpal Singh Randeva, Kamaljit Chatha

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Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a major healthcare burden on the population worldwide. Early detection of this disease is important in prevention and treatment to minimise morbidity and mortality. Biomarkers are a critical tool to either diagnose, screen, or provide prognostic information for pathological conditions. This review discusses the historical cardiac biomarkers used to detect these conditions, discussing their application and their limitations. Identification of new biomarkers have since replaced these and are now in use in routine clinical practice, but still do not detect all disease. Future cardiac biomarkers are showing promise in early studies, but further studies are required to show their value in improving detection of CVD above the current biomarkers. Additionally, the analytical platforms that would allow them to be adopted in healthcare are yet to be established. There is also the need to identify whether these biomarkers can be used for diagnostic, prognostic, or screening purposes, which will impact their implementation in routine clinical practice.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5680
Number of pages41
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number10
Early online date19 May 2022
Publication statusPublished - 19 May 2022

Bibliographical note

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


  • cardiovascular diseases
  • biomarkers
  • future biomarkers


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