Can daily meteorological measurement of near-surface wind detect climate changes in the Sahel (SE Niger, 1950–1992)?

Bouba Hassane, A. Durand, Zibo Garba, Bastien Dieppois, D. Sebag, Jean-Louis Rajot, Arona Diedhiou, Benjamin Ngounou Ngatcha, A. Traore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Using three daily measurements of wind speed and direction from synoptic weather station data in SE Niger, we examined the diurnal, seasonal and interannual time-scale of Sahel climate variability between 1950 and 1992. The seasonal wind patterns are closely related to the temperatures and West African monsoon dynamics. The transitions between the two seasons are marked by an important increase in calms (wind speed <0.5 m s−1). Such variations are related to meridional shifts of the Inter Tropical Discontinuity (ITD) and Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Interannual fluctuations of annual wind speeds are consistent with Sahel rainfall variability. Dry years, such as in 1969–1973 and 1983–1986 periods, are associated with negative anomalies in wind speeds mainly due to an increase in calms and dry conditions. Nevertheless, we note several differences: the first period is associated with a yearly increase in the annual mean speed, while the second is associated with a decrease. Differences could be related to changes in atmospheric circulation, especially regarding the strength and latitudinal position of Tropical and African Easterly jets.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)91-101
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Arid Environments
Volume124
Early online date12 Aug 2015
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2016

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Sahel
Niger
surface wind
wind speed
wind velocity
climate change
atmospheric circulation
weather stations
intertropical convergence zone
wind direction
weather station
tropics
discontinuity
monsoon
timescale
climate
rain
anomaly
rainfall
temperature

Keywords

  • Central Sahel
  • Niger
  • Climate variability
  • Wind speed and direction

Cite this

Can daily meteorological measurement of near-surface wind detect climate changes in the Sahel (SE Niger, 1950–1992)? / Hassane, Bouba; Durand, A.; Garba, Zibo; Dieppois, Bastien; Sebag, D.; Rajot, Jean-Louis; Diedhiou, Arona; Ngounou Ngatcha, Benjamin; Traore, A.

In: Journal of Arid Environments, Vol. 124, 01.2016, p. 91-101.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hassane, Bouba ; Durand, A. ; Garba, Zibo ; Dieppois, Bastien ; Sebag, D. ; Rajot, Jean-Louis ; Diedhiou, Arona ; Ngounou Ngatcha, Benjamin ; Traore, A. / Can daily meteorological measurement of near-surface wind detect climate changes in the Sahel (SE Niger, 1950–1992)?. In: Journal of Arid Environments. 2016 ; Vol. 124. pp. 91-101.
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AU - Hassane, Bouba

AU - Durand, A.

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AU - Dieppois, Bastien

AU - Sebag, D.

AU - Rajot, Jean-Louis

AU - Diedhiou, Arona

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AU - Traore, A.

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N2 - Using three daily measurements of wind speed and direction from synoptic weather station data in SE Niger, we examined the diurnal, seasonal and interannual time-scale of Sahel climate variability between 1950 and 1992. The seasonal wind patterns are closely related to the temperatures and West African monsoon dynamics. The transitions between the two seasons are marked by an important increase in calms (wind speed <0.5 m s−1). Such variations are related to meridional shifts of the Inter Tropical Discontinuity (ITD) and Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Interannual fluctuations of annual wind speeds are consistent with Sahel rainfall variability. Dry years, such as in 1969–1973 and 1983–1986 periods, are associated with negative anomalies in wind speeds mainly due to an increase in calms and dry conditions. Nevertheless, we note several differences: the first period is associated with a yearly increase in the annual mean speed, while the second is associated with a decrease. Differences could be related to changes in atmospheric circulation, especially regarding the strength and latitudinal position of Tropical and African Easterly jets.

AB - Using three daily measurements of wind speed and direction from synoptic weather station data in SE Niger, we examined the diurnal, seasonal and interannual time-scale of Sahel climate variability between 1950 and 1992. The seasonal wind patterns are closely related to the temperatures and West African monsoon dynamics. The transitions between the two seasons are marked by an important increase in calms (wind speed <0.5 m s−1). Such variations are related to meridional shifts of the Inter Tropical Discontinuity (ITD) and Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Interannual fluctuations of annual wind speeds are consistent with Sahel rainfall variability. Dry years, such as in 1969–1973 and 1983–1986 periods, are associated with negative anomalies in wind speeds mainly due to an increase in calms and dry conditions. Nevertheless, we note several differences: the first period is associated with a yearly increase in the annual mean speed, while the second is associated with a decrease. Differences could be related to changes in atmospheric circulation, especially regarding the strength and latitudinal position of Tropical and African Easterly jets.

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