Calibration Model for Detection of Potential Demodulating Behaviour in Biological Media Exposed to RF Energy

Chan H. See, Raed A. Abd-Alhameed, Arfan Ghani, Nazar Ali, Peter Excell, Neil J. McEwan, Quirino Balzano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Potential demodulating ability in biological tissue exposed to Radio Frequency (RF) signals intrinsically requires an unsymmetrical diodelike nonlinear response in tissue samples. This may be investigated by observing possible generation of the second harmonic in a cavity resonator designed to have fundamental and second harmonic resonant frequencies with collocated antinodes. Such a response would be of interest as being a mechanism that
could enable demodulation of informationcarrying waveforms having modulating frequencies in ranges that could interfere with cellular processes. Previous work has developed an experimental system to test for such responses: the present work reports an electric circuit model devised to facilitate calibration of any putative nonlinear RF energy conversion occurring within a nonlinear testpiece inside the cavity. The method is validated computationally and experimentally using a wellcharacterised nonlinear device. The variations of the reflection coefficients of the fundamental and second harmonic responses of the cavity due to adding nonlinear and lossy material are also discussed. The proposed model demonstrates that the sensitivity of the measurement equipment plays a vital role in deciding the required input power to detect any second harmonic signal, which is expected to be very weak. The model developed here enables the establishment of a lookup table giving the level of the second harmonic signal in the detector as a function of the specific input power applied in a measurement. Experimental results are in good agreement with the simulated results.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberSMT-2017-0105
Pages (from-to)900-906
Number of pages7
JournalIET Science, Measurement and Technology
Volume11
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 17 May 2017

Fingerprint

radio frequencies
Calibration
harmonics
Tissue
Table lookup
Cavity resonators
Demodulation
Energy conversion
energy
Natural frequencies
antinodes
cavities
Detectors
energy conversion
demodulation
cavity resonators
Networks (circuits)
resonant frequencies
waveforms
reflectance

Bibliographical note

© 2017 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.

Keywords

  • biological techniques
  • table lookup
  • medical signal detection
  • harmonic generation
  • demodulation
  • cavity resonators
  • calibration
  • biological tissues

Cite this

Calibration Model for Detection of Potential Demodulating Behaviour in Biological Media Exposed to RF Energy. / See, Chan H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Ghani, Arfan; Ali, Nazar; Excell, Peter; McEwan, Neil J.; Balzano, Quirino.

In: IET Science, Measurement and Technology, Vol. 11, No. 7, SMT-2017-0105, 17.05.2017, p. 900-906.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

See, Chan H. ; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A. ; Ghani, Arfan ; Ali, Nazar ; Excell, Peter ; McEwan, Neil J. ; Balzano, Quirino. / Calibration Model for Detection of Potential Demodulating Behaviour in Biological Media Exposed to RF Energy. In: IET Science, Measurement and Technology. 2017 ; Vol. 11, No. 7. pp. 900-906.
@article{11c93ef0a9274f9e9372ee046348d1c4,
title = "Calibration Model for Detection of Potential Demodulating Behaviour in Biological Media Exposed to RF Energy",
abstract = "Potential demodulating ability in biological tissue exposed to Radio Frequency (RF) signals intrinsically requires an unsymmetrical diodelike nonlinear response in tissue samples. This may be investigated by observing possible generation of the second harmonic in a cavity resonator designed to have fundamental and second harmonic resonant frequencies with collocated antinodes. Such a response would be of interest as being a mechanism that could enable demodulation of informationcarrying waveforms having modulating frequencies in ranges that could interfere with cellular processes. Previous work has developed an experimental system to test for such responses: the present work reports an electric circuit model devised to facilitate calibration of any putative nonlinear RF energy conversion occurring within a nonlinear testpiece inside the cavity. The method is validated computationally and experimentally using a wellcharacterised nonlinear device. The variations of the reflection coefficients of the fundamental and second harmonic responses of the cavity due to adding nonlinear and lossy material are also discussed. The proposed model demonstrates that the sensitivity of the measurement equipment plays a vital role in deciding the required input power to detect any second harmonic signal, which is expected to be very weak. The model developed here enables the establishment of a lookup table giving the level of the second harmonic signal in the detector as a function of the specific input power applied in a measurement. Experimental results are in good agreement with the simulated results.",
keywords = "biological techniques, table lookup, medical signal detection, harmonic generation, demodulation, cavity resonators, calibration, biological tissues",
author = "See, {Chan H.} and Abd-Alhameed, {Raed A.} and Arfan Ghani and Nazar Ali and Peter Excell and McEwan, {Neil J.} and Quirino Balzano",
note = "{\circledC} 2017 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.",
year = "2017",
month = "5",
day = "17",
doi = "10.1049/iet-smt.2017.0105",
language = "English",
volume = "11",
pages = "900--906",
journal = "IET Science, Measurement and Technology",
issn = "1751-8822",
publisher = "Institution of Engineering and Technology",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Calibration Model for Detection of Potential Demodulating Behaviour in Biological Media Exposed to RF Energy

AU - See, Chan H.

AU - Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.

AU - Ghani, Arfan

AU - Ali, Nazar

AU - Excell, Peter

AU - McEwan, Neil J.

AU - Balzano, Quirino

N1 - © 2017 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.

PY - 2017/5/17

Y1 - 2017/5/17

N2 - Potential demodulating ability in biological tissue exposed to Radio Frequency (RF) signals intrinsically requires an unsymmetrical diodelike nonlinear response in tissue samples. This may be investigated by observing possible generation of the second harmonic in a cavity resonator designed to have fundamental and second harmonic resonant frequencies with collocated antinodes. Such a response would be of interest as being a mechanism that could enable demodulation of informationcarrying waveforms having modulating frequencies in ranges that could interfere with cellular processes. Previous work has developed an experimental system to test for such responses: the present work reports an electric circuit model devised to facilitate calibration of any putative nonlinear RF energy conversion occurring within a nonlinear testpiece inside the cavity. The method is validated computationally and experimentally using a wellcharacterised nonlinear device. The variations of the reflection coefficients of the fundamental and second harmonic responses of the cavity due to adding nonlinear and lossy material are also discussed. The proposed model demonstrates that the sensitivity of the measurement equipment plays a vital role in deciding the required input power to detect any second harmonic signal, which is expected to be very weak. The model developed here enables the establishment of a lookup table giving the level of the second harmonic signal in the detector as a function of the specific input power applied in a measurement. Experimental results are in good agreement with the simulated results.

AB - Potential demodulating ability in biological tissue exposed to Radio Frequency (RF) signals intrinsically requires an unsymmetrical diodelike nonlinear response in tissue samples. This may be investigated by observing possible generation of the second harmonic in a cavity resonator designed to have fundamental and second harmonic resonant frequencies with collocated antinodes. Such a response would be of interest as being a mechanism that could enable demodulation of informationcarrying waveforms having modulating frequencies in ranges that could interfere with cellular processes. Previous work has developed an experimental system to test for such responses: the present work reports an electric circuit model devised to facilitate calibration of any putative nonlinear RF energy conversion occurring within a nonlinear testpiece inside the cavity. The method is validated computationally and experimentally using a wellcharacterised nonlinear device. The variations of the reflection coefficients of the fundamental and second harmonic responses of the cavity due to adding nonlinear and lossy material are also discussed. The proposed model demonstrates that the sensitivity of the measurement equipment plays a vital role in deciding the required input power to detect any second harmonic signal, which is expected to be very weak. The model developed here enables the establishment of a lookup table giving the level of the second harmonic signal in the detector as a function of the specific input power applied in a measurement. Experimental results are in good agreement with the simulated results.

KW - biological techniques

KW - table lookup

KW - medical signal detection

KW - harmonic generation

KW - demodulation

KW - cavity resonators

KW - calibration

KW - biological tissues

U2 - 10.1049/iet-smt.2017.0105

DO - 10.1049/iet-smt.2017.0105

M3 - Article

VL - 11

SP - 900

EP - 906

JO - IET Science, Measurement and Technology

JF - IET Science, Measurement and Technology

SN - 1751-8822

IS - 7

M1 - SMT-2017-0105

ER -