Calibrating trust through knowledge: Introducing the concept of informed safety for automation in vehicles

Siddartha Khastgir, Stewart Birrell, Gunwant Dhadyalla, Paul Jennings

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

88 Citations (Scopus)


There has been an increasing focus on the development of automation in vehicles due its many potential benefits like safety, improved traffic efficiency, reduced emissions etc. One of the key factors influencing public acceptance of automated vehicle technologies is their level of trust. Development of trust is a dynamic process and needs to be calibrated to the correct levels for safe deployment to ensure appropriate use of such systems. One of the factors influencing trust is the knowledge provided to the driver about the system's true capabilities and limitations. After a 56 participants driving simulator study, the authors found that with the introduction of knowledge about the true capabilities and limitations of the automated system, trust in the automated system increased as compared to when no knowledge was provided about the system. Participants experienced two different types of automated systems: low capability automated system and high capability automated system. Interestingly, with the introduction of knowledge, the average trust levels for both low and high capability automated systems were similar. Based on the experimental results, the authors introduce the concept of informed safety, i.e., informing the drivers about the safety limits of the automated system to enable them to calibrate their trust in the system to an appropriate level.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)290-303
Number of pages14
JournalTransportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
Early online date4 Oct 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Automation
  • Human-automation interaction
  • Knowledge
  • Trust

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Automotive Engineering
  • Transportation
  • Computer Science Applications


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