Calculating the macroscopic dynamics of gas/metal/slag emulsion during steelmaking

Stephen Spooner, Jason Marc Warnett, Rohit Bhagat, Mark Antony Williams, Seetharaman Sridhar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


The average residence time, metal circulation rates and percentage tap weights of metal suspended in the emulsion of a Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) are calculated under defined assumptions. Data has been taken from the IMPHOS (Improved Phosphorus Refining) project in which a 6 tonne BOF was simultaneously sampled at selected depths and at selected times under controlled operating conditions.1) A discussion is given on the formation of the model and as to the diversion from previously reported findings from this data.2) Links have been made between the macroscopic parameters calculated and the chemical refining performance seen through the heats. X-ray computer tomography has given information on droplet size and numbers in the emulsion. With the data used to validate the proposed model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2171-2180
Number of pages10
JournalISIJ International
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Basic oxygen furnace
  • Gas/slag/metal emulsion
  • Residence time
  • Steelmaking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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