Calcium, Vitamin D, casein and whey protein intakes and periodontitis among Danish adults

Amanda R.A. Adegboye, Barbara J. Boucher, Johanne Kongstad, Nils Erik Fiehn, Lisa B. Christensen, Berit L. Heitmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)
2 Downloads (Pure)


Objective To investigate whether intakes of Ca, vitamin D, casein and whey are associated with periodontitis and to investigate the possibility of interactions between them. Design Cross-sectional study. An Internet-based, 267-item FFQ was used to assess dietary intake. Intakes of casein (32·0 g/d), whey proteins (9·6 g/d) and vitamin D (5·8 μg/d) were classified as within v. above the 50th percentile. Ca intake was classified as within v. below age-specific recommendations. Severe periodontitis was defined as having ≥2 inter-proximal sites with clinical attachment loss ≥6 mm (not on the same tooth) and ≥1 inter-proximal site with pocket depth ≥5 mm. Since vitamin D influences Ca absorption, models were stratified by lower and higher (<5·8 v. ≥5·8 g/d) vitamin D intake. Setting Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES) 2007-2008. Subjects Adult participants (n 3287) in the oral health study of DANHES 2007-2008. Results Intakes of Ca within recommendations (OR=0·76; 95 % CI 0·58, 0·99), whey ≥9·6 g/d (OR=0·75; 95 % CI 0·58, 0·97) and casein ≥32 g/d (OR=0·75 95 % CI 0·58, 0·97) were associated with lower likelihood of severe periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education, smoking, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, number of teeth, daily brushing, regular visits to the dentist and chronic illness, irrespective of vitamin D intake levels. Intake of vitamin D alone was not associated severe with periodontitis. Conclusions Intakes of Ca, casein and whey protein were inversely associated with periodontitis. Consumption of foods rich in Ca, casein and whey (e.g. dairy foods) should be promoted, as they may contribute to the prevention of periodontitis. Further longitudinal studies are required to confirm these associations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)503-510
Number of pages8
JournalPublic Health Nutrition
Issue number3
Early online date4 May 2015
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Calcium
  • Casein
  • Oral health
  • Periodontitis
  • Vitamin D
  • Whey

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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