Buried RF Sensors for Smart Road Infrastructure: Empirical Communication Range Testing, Propagation by Line of Sight, Diffraction and Reflection Model and Technology Comparison for 868 MHz–2.4 GHz

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3 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

Updating the road infrastructure requires the potential mass adoption of the road studs currently used in car detection, speed monitoring, and path marking. Road studs commonly include RF transceivers connecting the buried sensors to an offsite base station for centralized data management. Since traffic monitoring experiments through buried sensors are resource expensive and difficult, the literature detailing it is insufficient and inaccessible due to various strategic reasons. Moreover, as the main RF frequencies adopted for stud communication are either 868/915 MHz or 2.4 GHz, the radio coverage differs, and it is not readily predictable due to the low-power communication in the near proximity of the ground. This work delivers a reference study on low-power RF communication ranging for the two above frequencies up to 60 m. The experimental setup employs successive measurements and repositioning of a base station at three different heights of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 m, and is accompanied by an extensive theoretical analysis of propagation, including line of sight, diffraction, and wall reflection. Enhancing the tutorial value of this work, a correlation analysis using Pearson’s coefficient and root mean square error is performed between the field test and simulation results.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1669
Number of pages21
JournalSensors
Volume23
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2 Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Keywords

  • RF
  • 868 MHz
  • 2.4 GHz
  • road sensors
  • road studs
  • car detection
  • smart infrastructure
  • buried sensors

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