Branding identity, development and application: a comparison of rail and road vehicle liveries

Elaine Mackie

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    4 Citations (Scopus)
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)256-277
    JournalInternational Journal of Vehicle Design
    Issue number2/3/4
    Publication statusPublished - 2011

    Bibliographical note

    Author's note: This paper has been published in the International Journal of Vehicle Design (impact factor 0.48) an international authoritative reference in the field within a special edition on Ergonomic and Industrial Design of Road Vehicles. It has potential applicability for policy in transport as it proposes a way of measuring the impact of a livery within a particular service provision to improve coherency between brand identity and brand image. Rigour comes from engagement with other relevant work and conducting research into two transport operators and the form of two different types of vehicles in order to propose a logical framework combining physical and emotional attributes. The paper’s originality lies in its contribution to theoretical frameworks in an area of design where documentation is currently lacking in the field.


    • branding
    • brand identity
    • vehicle design
    • body side
    • road vehicle liveries
    • rail vehicle liveries
    • livery design
    • vehicle fleets
    • exterior characteristics
    • brand image
    • Gestalt psychology
    • physical artefacts
    • emotions
    • transit identity
    • rolling stock livery
    • buses
    • coaches
    • trains
    • light railways
    • trams
    • delivery trucks
    • delivery vans.

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