Blended E85-diesel fuel droplet heating and evaporation

Nawar Hasan Imran Al-Esawi, Mansour Al Qubeissi, Reece Whitaker, Sergei S. Sazhin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
13 Downloads (Pure)


The multi-dimensional quasi-discrete (MDQD) model is applied to the analysis of heating and evaporation of mixtures of E85 (85 vol. % ethanol and 15 vol. % gasoline) with diesel fuel, commonly known as ‘E85-diesel’ blends, using the universal quasi-chemical functional group activity coefficients model for the calculation of vapor pressure. The contribution of 119 components of E85-diesel fuel blends is taken into account, but replaced with smaller number of components/quasi-components, under conditions representative of diesel engines. Our results show that high fractions of E85-diesel fuel blends have a significant impact on the evolutions of droplet radii and surface temperatures. For instance, droplet lifetime and surface temperature for a blend of 50 vol. % E85 and 50 vol. % diesel are 23.2% and up to 3.4% less than those of pure diesel fuel, respectively. The application of the MDQD model has improved the computational efficiency significantly with minimal sacrifice to accuracy. This approach leads to a saving of up to 86.4% of CPU time when reducing the 119 components to 16 components/quasi-components without a sacrifice to the main features of the model.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2477–2488
Number of pages12
JournalEnergy & Fuels
Issue number3
Early online date1 Feb 2019
Publication statusPublished - 21 Mar 2019

Bibliographical note

This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Energy & Fuels, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see


  • Activity coefficient
  • Diesel
  • Ethanol
  • Evaporation
  • Fuel blends
  • Gasoline
  • Heating and evaporation
  • Biofuel
  • Thermodynamics
  • Fluid drops
  • CFD
  • Mathematical modeling
  • Renewable energy
  • Heat and Mass Transfer
  • Combustion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
  • Bioengineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Mechanical Engineering


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