Biological beneficiation of kaolin: A review on iron removal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


Application of mineral bio-beneficiation to remove iron oxyhydroxides from kaolinite clays has been the center of interest in recent decades, and many research works over the world have been dedicated to study the potential of this approach for upgrading the clay whiteness and refractoriness while preserving the inherent specifications and therefore improving the commercial value of kaolin. Microbial purification methods are preferred since they are environmentally benign (neither use nor release hazardous chemicals), not energy intensive, low in initial and operational costs, and they preserve the crystal structure of the clay. The present review offers the general concepts and fundamentals of the process along with an outline and critical assessment of the latest studies carried out on the biological dissolution of iron from kaolinite clays.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)238-245
Number of pages8
JournalApplied Clay Science
Early online date28 Jan 2015
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2015
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Elsevier B.V.


  • Bioflocculation
  • Bioflotation
  • Bioleaching
  • Iron
  • Kaolin
  • Oxalic acid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geology
  • Geochemistry and Petrology


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