Bioimpedance and bioreactance methods for monitoring cardiac output

DG Jakovljevic, MI Trenell, GA MacGowan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)


Noninvasive continuous cardiac output monitoring may have wide clinical applications in anaesthesiology, emergency care and cardiology. It can improve outcomes, establish diagnosis, guide therapy and help risk stratification. The present article describes the theory behind the two noninvasive continuous monitoring methods for cardiac output assessment such as bioimpedance and bioreactance. The review discusses the advantages and disadvantages of these methods and highlights the recent method comparison studies. The use of bioimpedance and bioreactance to estimate cardiac output under haemodynamic challenges is also discussed. In particular, the article focuses on performance of the two methods in the assessment of fluid responsiveness using passive leg raising test and cardiac output response to exercise stress testing.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)381-394
Number of pages14
JournalBest Practice & Research: Clinical Anaesthesiology
Issue number4
Early online date23 Sept 2014
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • cardiac output
  • noninvasive
  • bioimpedance
  • bioreactance
  • volume responsiveness
  • exercise


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