Bilateral tests for the assessment of manipulative skills in children: development, reliability and validity

Franjo Lovric, Igor Jelaska, Cain Clark, Emma Eyre, Durdica Militic, Petra Mandic

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    Purpose. the aim of the study was to develop bilateral tests for simultaneous quantitative and qualitative assessment of manipulative skills among 7-year-old children, and to examine the reliability and validity of the tests. Methods. A sample of 78 (35 girls) children (aged 7.34 ± 0.53 years) were tested with 3 novel bilateral tests: Standing ball throwing, Bouncing the ball standing, and Dribbling the ball with the foot. Subsequently, the reliability and validity of the constructed tests were investigated. Results. Very high between-participant reliability was demonstrated through high and stable Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.94–0.98 for all tests), while relatively small coefficients of variation (0.03–0.12 for all tests) were observed. High values of correlation between expert judges’ ratings, as well as intra-class correlation, for both left and right sides indicated excellent between-rater reliability (0.84–0.99 and 0.88–0.93 across all tests, respectively). Conclusions. the tests are reliable and valid in 7-year-old children and may be used to promote the adoption of appropriate sport and physical activities. Future research should explore the influence of further fine and gross motor skills on motor development.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1-9
    Number of pages9
    JournalHuman Movement
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 6 Mar 2019


    • FUndamental movement skills
    • Measurement
    • Motor asymmetry
    • Motor competence
    • Psychometric characteristics

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Biophysics
    • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
    • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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