A significant proportion of European road accidents involve particular driver cohorts, foremost novice drivers who are over-represented in accidents in comparison to other age groups of drivers, but also motorcyclists, truck drivers or emergency drivers. Despite some cohort-specific differences in training needs there are training goals that apply to all driver groups. This specifically pertains to the training of higher order strategic factors associated with vehicle driving rather than vehicle control skills that have traditionally been at the heart of training endeavours. These learning targets thereby include journey-based decisions, hazard perception as well as the ability to self-assess and effectively control the way that personal traits affect driving behaviour and risk acceptance (Ivancic & Hesketh, 2000). The core activity of the task A1.1 (part of Work Package 1) described in this report was the systematic review of a wide range of existing tools and technologies for computer-based training (CBT) of drivers in all TRAIN-ALL application fields. The review covered all CBT tools, with emphasis on driving simulations of all functional levels. The purpose is to provide an indication of the state of the market and take the first steps towards clarifying the types of CBT available and showing how they might be considered during future accreditation and certification of driver training schemes. The focus here is on technology provision, and it must be remembered that evaluation of technology can only be complete in relation to defined operational requirements based on training needs analysis. This report feeds forward into other work packages that consider the curriculum, certification, and cost effectiveness in more detail. A questionnaire survey was conducted to gather information of multimedia tools (MMT), neurological test batteries and driving simulators used in project member countries and overseas. In total 25 completed questionnaires on multimedia tools, one questionnaire on a neurological test battery and 20 questionnaires on simulators were returned in time for inclusion. With the rapid development of information and other technologies and decreasing associated costs a large variety of training tools has become available for practically all driver groups, from basic training of novice drivers to in-service training of experienced drivers. Training tools range from simple video sequences to top of the range driving simulators. The interactivity of the multimedia tools makes it possible for the drivers to continuously update and elaborate current knowledge on their own. Additionally, the new technologies may offer the possibility of objectively assessing driving performance and thus support the driving instructor in his role. Further advances may change the traditional instructor-trainee set up by offering opportunities for self-evaluation and remote/distance learning platforms, for example, through e-learning. The set-up of simulator training often seems to be a mere translation of on-road driving lessons into the virtual worlds. The lack of coverage of the highest levels of the GADGET matrix (strategic and motivational driving goals) may not only be explained by technical inabilities of a simulator, but rather by the absence of an in-vehicle training format that would successfully address these variables. In the future more thought must be given to the development of appropriate course-ware and training formats and settings (e.g. including peers in the training process). This could include the development of driving tasks on the strategic level (e.g. plan a trip in the simulator to a specified location) or could address personal attitudes and motivations by allowing or triggering trainees to disclose them in the training process. Finally, more and robust evaluation studies of simulator-based driving are urgently needed. To successfully promote simulator-based driving training, evaluation studies on transfer of training are vital in demonstrating the benefits of simulators to a wide, and often sceptical, range of stakeholders.
|Publication status||Published - 2007|
Bibliographical note© European Communities, 1995-2012
Reproduction is authorised, provided the source is acknowledged, save where otherwise stated.
- driver training
- computer-based training
- driving simulators
Lang, B., Parkes, A. M., Cotter, S., Robbins, R., Diels, C., Vanhulle, P., ... Poschadel, S. (2007). Benchmarking and classification of CBT tools for driver training. (TRAIN-ALL Deliverable). TRAIN-ALL consortium.