Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Slag: Formation, Reaction, and Energy and Material Recovery

Zushu Li, Juncheng Li, Stephen Spooner, Sridhar Seetharaman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
11 Downloads (Pure)


Basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS) slag, a product of hot metal element (e.g., Si, Mn, Fe, P) oxidation and flux (e.g. lime, dolomite) dissolution, plays a critical role in the production of high-quality crude steel, although its behavior inside the BOS vessel (formation and reaction with metal droplets and gas) is still not clear and its recycling has always been challenging. Herein, examples of BOS-slag-related research conducted by the present authors are introduced, in addition to a critical review of relevant research reported in the literature. This includes four important topics: 1) slag formation, i.e., dissolution of lime in the BOS slag; 2) in situ observation of high-temperature behavior of BOS slags; 3) transient phenomena in BOS slags due to metal droplet–slag–gas reactions; and 4) energy and material recovery from molten BOS slags. This article aims to provide state-of-the-art understanding and new research ideas on these research topics. An emphasis is placed on methods that seek to in situ probe the evolution of the slag and to document its physical and chemical changes.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2100167
Number of pages16
JournalSteel Research International
Issue number3
Early online date10 Aug 2021
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Z.L. would like to appreciate the financial support from Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) under the grant number EP/N011368/1 (EPSRC Fellowship). The authors are thankful for the financial support from EPSRC under the grant no. EP/M507829/1, from Innovate UK under the project no. 102170, and from Tata Steel Europe.


  • basic oxygen steelmaking slag
  • energy recovery
  • gas–slag–metal reaction
  • high-temperature behavior
  • lime dissolution
  • material recovery
  • transient phenomena


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