Bank stock valuation theories: do they explain prices based on theories?

Ken Yien Leong, Mohamed Ariff, Alireza Zarei, M. Ishaq Bhatti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
299 Downloads (Pure)


The objective of this paper is to investigate the validity of stock valuation theories and their forecasting ability by conducting an empirical study. It employs four most commonly used theories which are then tested using 19-year banking-firm market data. The usefulness of these models demonstrates with promising results.

This paper conducts a multi-country study using the multi-model testing approach to evaluate validity of theories and forecast accuracy of banking firms. It employs four methodology models used in finance literature; (1) P/E multiples model, (2) accounting-information-based clean surplus model, (3) theoretical model based on Gordon and Shapiro (1956) method and (4) the Damodaran-Kottler Free Cash Flow or FCF theory based on discounting model.

The tests show that the four theories under tests have a significant fit with actual price formation. The explained variation ranges from 72 to 92%, so the explanatory power of the theories accounting for variations in bank prices over 19-year period is substantial. The models fit suggest that the P/E model has superior predictive power followed by the RIM, DDM and FCFE. These findings shed new lights on the relative performance of valuation models.

Research limitations/implications
The study is limited in terms of the sample period size for 1999–2019. The availability of essential financial data prior to 2000 is very limited, so one can understand interpretation of statistical results under certain assumptions.

Practical implications
The paper suggests that one-factor model is better than the two-factor model.

The work done in this paper is unpublished and original contribution to banking and finance literature and also not under consideration for publication in any other journal.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)331-350
Number of pages20
JournalInternational Journal of Managerial Finance
Issue number2
Early online date1 Mar 2022
Publication statusPublished - 28 Mar 2023

Bibliographical note

Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.

This document is the author’s post-print version, incorporating any revisions agreed during the peer-review process. Some differences between the published version and this version may remain and you are advised to consult the published version if you wish to cite from it.


The authors are thankful for the constructive comments received from two anonymous referees, the manuscript handling editor, and the participants at the Sydney Conference on Interdisciplinary Business and Economics Research, and the 21st Malaysia Finance Association Conference. However, authors take full responsibility for any remaining errors. Publisher Copyright: © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.


  • Bank stocks
  • Bursa Malaysia
  • Concordance test
  • Forecasting prices
  • Stock valuation theories

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business, Management and Accounting (miscellaneous)
  • Finance


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