Attenuating Muscle Damage Biomarkers and Muscle Soreness After an Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage with Branched-Chain Amino Acid (BCAA) Supplementation: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis with Meta-regression

Atef Salem, Khouloud Ben Maaoui, Haithem Jahrami, Mezna A. AlMarzooqi, Omar Boukhris, Balsam Messai, Cain C. T. Clark, Jordan M. Glenn, Hadeel A. Ghazzaoui, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Achraf Ammar, Khaled Trabelsi, Hamdi Chtourou

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Abstract

Background: Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation is one of the most popular strategies used by the general population and athletes to reduce muscle soreness and accelerate the recovery process of muscle damage biomarkers after an intense exercise or training session. Objectives: This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effects of BCAA supplementation on muscle damage biomarkers and muscle soreness after exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Methods: The systematic literature search for randomized controlled trials was conducted using seven databases, up to September 13th, 2022. The eligibility criteria for selecting studies were as follows: studies performed on healthy active participants, using BCAA at least once, controlled with a placebo or control group, performing resistance or endurance exercises, and followed up at least once post-EIMD. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the “SIGN RCT checklist”. Random-effects meta-analyses were processed to compute the standardized mean difference (Hedges’ g). Meta-regression analyses were completed with daily and total dosage and supplementation as continuous moderator variables. Results: Of the 18 studies included in this meta-analysis, 13 were of high quality and five were of acceptable quality. Our results revealed BCAA supplementation elicits a significant effect on reducing creatine kinase (CK) levels immediately (g = − 0.44; p = 0.006) and 72 h (g = − 0.99; p = 0.002), but not 24 h, 48 h, and 96 h post-EIMD. Additionally, a significant effect on delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) was identified at 24 h (g = − 1.34; p < 0.001), 48 h (g = − 1.75; p < 0.001), 72 h (g = − 1.82; p < 0.001), and 96 h (g = − 0.82; p = 0.008), but not immediately post-EIMD. No significant effect was found on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels at any time point. Meta-regression indicated higher daily and total dosages of BCAA, and longer supplementation periods were related to the largest beneficial effects on CK (total dosage and supplementation period) at 48 h, and on DOMS at 24 h (only daily dosage). Conclusion: The overall effects of BCAA supplementation could be considered useful for lowering CK and DOMS after EIMD, but not LDH. The longer supplementation period prior to the EIMD could be more effective for CK and DOMS reduction.
Original languageEnglish
Article number42
Number of pages18
JournalSports Medicine - Open
Volume10
Issue number1
Early online date16 Apr 2024
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 16 Apr 2024

Bibliographical note

© The Author(s) 2024. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Funder

Open Access funding enabled and organized by Projekt DEAL. No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this article.

Keywords

  • Muscle damage
  • Branched-chain amino acid
  • Recovery
  • Creatine kinase
  • Lactate dehydrogenase
  • Muscle soreness

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