Asymmetry of dominant and non-dominant shoulders in university level men and women volleyball players

Olga Zuzgina, Maximilian Wdowski

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
82 Downloads (Pure)


Purpose. Volleyball involves repetitive forceful actions predominantly of one arm, which could eventually lead to an injury or shoulder pathology. the aim of the study was to compare the range of motion and strength in the dominant and non-dominant shoulders of university level volleyball players, with the objective of examining any differences between sexes. Methods. A total of 19 university level volleyball players (9 men: 81.3 ± 8.0 kg, 21 ± 1 years; 10 women: 66.0 ± 8.2 kg, 19 ± 1 years) participated. the passive internal and external range of motion of the dominant and non-dominant spiking shoulders were measured with a goniometer. the shoulder strength tests were performed on an isokinetic dynamometer at the speed of 60°/s in the concentric mode of contraction. Shoulder internal and external rotator concentric strength, range of motion, and internal/external rotation strength ratios were tested between arm dominance and sex with the use of 2-way mixed design ANOVA. Results. Internal and external rotation strength was asymmetrical in both men and women, in favour of the dominant side (p < 0.05). both men and women displayed asymmetrical external/internal ratios (p < 0.05), with greater ratios present in the non-dominant side. Conclusions. University level men and women volleyball players exhibit similar levels of significant asymmetry in the internal/external rotation strength between dominant and non-dominant spiking arms. Furthermore, subject-specific responses in strength asymmetries suggest further investigation at the individual level. Isokinetic shoulder screening could be used to reveal information about possible risk factors for shoulder injuries.
Original languageEnglish
Article number20
Pages (from-to)19-27
Number of pages9
JournalHuman Movement
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 11 Jul 2019

Bibliographical note

Copyright: © 2019 University School of Physical Education in Wrocław. This is an Open Access journal, all articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) License (, allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.


  • injury
  • biomechanics
  • dynamometer
  • Sport


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