Association of dietary energy density with cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome in Tehranian older adults

Hossein Shahinfar , Maryam Safabakhsh, Sara Mansouri, Kurosh Djafarian, Cain Clark, Sakineh Shab-Bidar

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    6 Citations (Scopus)
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    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the consumption of an energy-dense diet and cardiometabolic risk factors in Iranian older adults.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 226 older adults who were living in Tehran, Iran. Dietary energy density (DED) was calculated as energy per weight of food, kcal/g. The usual intake of participants was measured using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements, fasting blood sugar, serum lipid profile and blood pressure and were assessed. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel-III (NCEP ATP III).

    Results: Those who were in the third tertile of DED compared to the first tertile had 19% lower odds of having the cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome (MetS) 0.81 (0.39,1.68) but the association was no significant (P = 0.58). There was a significant inverse association between DED and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (β=-0.14, P = 0.03) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (β=-0.17, P = 0.01). We did not find any significant association between intake of energy-dense foods and serum levels of triglyceride (TG) (P = 0.62), fasting blood sugar (FBS) (P = 0.06), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (P = 0.72) and waist circumference (WC) (P = 0.28).

    Conclusion: DED is negatively associated with SBP and DBP in Iranian older adults. Prospective studies are needed to establish a causal link between DED and MetS and risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD).
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)97-105
    Number of pages9
    JournalJournal of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Research
    Issue number2
    Early online date19 May 2020
    Publication statusPublished - Jun 2020

    Bibliographical note

    © 2020 The Author (s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


    • Metabolic Syndrome
    • Obesity
    • Diet
    • Energy Intake


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