Assessment of Clinical Information Quality in Digital Health Technologies: International eDelphi Study

Kayode Philip Fadahunsi, Petra Wark, Nikolaos Mastellos, Ana Louisa Neves, Joseph Gallagher, Azeem Majeed, Andrew Webster, Anthony Smith, Brian Choo-Kang, Catherine Leon, Christopher Edwards, Conor O'Shea, Elizabeth Heitz, Olamide Valentine Kayode, Makeba Nash, Martin Kowalski, Mateen Jiwani, Michael Edmund O'Callaghan, Nabil Zary, Nicola HendersonNiels H. Chavannes, Rok Čivljak, Olubunmi Abiola Olubiyi, Piyush Mahapatra, Rishi Nannan Panday, Sunday O Oriji, Tatiana Erlikh Fox, Victoria Faint, Josip Car

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    3 Citations (Scopus)
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    Background: Digital health technologies (DHTs), such as electronic health records and prescribing systems, are transforming
    health care delivery around the world. The quality of information in DHTs is key to the quality and safety of care. We developed
    a novel clinical information quality (CLIQ) framework to assess the quality of clinical information in DHTs.
    Objective: This study explored clinicians’ perspectives on the relevance, definition, and assessment of information quality
    dimensions in the CLIQ framework.
    Methods: We used a systematic and iterative eDelphi approach to engage clinicians who had information governance roles or
    personal interest in information governance; the clinicians were recruited through purposive and snowball sampling techniques.
    Data were collected using semistructured online questionnaires until consensus was reached on the information quality dimensions
    in the CLIQ framework. Responses on the relevance of the dimensions were summarized to inform decisions on retention of the
    dimensions according to prespecified rules. Thematic analysis of the free-text responses was used to revise definitions and the
    assessment of dimensions.
    Results: Thirty-five clinicians from 10 countries participated in the study, which was concluded after the second round. Consensus
    was reached on all dimensions and categories in the CLIQ framework: informativeness (accuracy, completeness, interpretability,
    plausibility, provenance, and relevance), availability (accessibility, portability, security, and timeliness), and usability (conformance,
    consistency, and maintainability). A new dimension, searchability, was introduced in the availability category to account for the
    ease of finding needed information in the DHTs. Certain dimensions were renamed, and some definitions were rephrased to
    improve clarity.
    Conclusions: The CLIQ framework reached a high expert consensus and clarity of language relating to the information quality
    dimensions. The framework can be used by health care managers and institutions as a pragmatic tool for identifying and forestalling
    information quality problems that could compromise patient safety and quality of care.
    International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID): RR2-10.1136/bmjopen-2021-057430
    Original languageEnglish
    Article numbere41889
    Number of pages10
    JournalJournal of Medical Internet Research
    Issue number12
    Early online date6 Dec 2022
    Publication statusPublished - 6 Dec 2022

    Bibliographical note

    This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.


    • information quality
    • digital health technology
    • patient safety
    • perspective
    • digital health technologies
    • DHT
    • thematic analysis
    • clarity
    • understandable
    • understandability
    • readability
    • searchability
    • security
    • decision support system
    • framework development
    • framework


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