Assessment of aflatoxin and heavy metals levels in maize and poultry feeds from Delta State, Nigeria

Idolo Ifie, Chinyere G. Igwebuike, Paul Imasuen, Winnie Akalamudo, Obakanurhe Oghenebrorhie, Job O. Akpodiete, Ukpai A. Eze

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The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of total aflatoxin and heavy metals (lead cadmium, chromium and copper) in poultry feed and ingredients from two regions (north and central) in Delta State, Nigeria. A total of 120 samples collected (comprising of maize, soybean meal, layers mash and broiler finisher) directly from poultry farms, feed mills and poultry feed dealers were analysed for moisture content, total aflatoxin and heavy metals (lead, cadmium, chromium and copper) concentrations. Moisture content was analysed using standard Association of Official Agricultural Chemists method, while total aflatoxin and heavy metals concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. Total aflatoxins concentrations ranged from 12.0 to 20 µg/kg and 21 to 31 µg/kg in samples from north and central region, respectively. Apart from maize, aflatoxin content in other samples from the north was marginally lower (18–20 µg/kg) than permitted levels. On the other hand, aflatoxin levels in samples from the central were all above tolerable limits. Copper content in samples was less than permissible limit, while 44.4, 29.1 and 21% of samples had concentrations of lead, cadmium and chromium, respectively, above permissible limit. The presence of aflatoxin and lead in poultry feeds above permissible limits of 20 µg/kg and 5 mg/kg, respectively, may pose a risk for animal productivity and human health.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12551-12560
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Science and Technology
Early online date22 Feb 2022
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

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  • Aflatoxins
  • Finished poultry feeds
  • Heavy metals
  • Permissible limits
  • Poultry feed ingredients

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)


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