Assessing the impact of relative permeability and capillary heterogeneity on Darcy flow modelling of CO 2 storage in Utsira Formation

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Predicting CO2 plume migration is an important aspect for the geological sequestration of CO2. In the absence of experimental data, the storage performance of CO2 geo‐storage can be assessed through the dynamic modelling of the fluid flow and transport properties of the rock‐fluid system using empirical formulations. Using the van Genuchten empirical model, this study documents a Darcy flow modelling approach to investigate different aspects of CO2 drainage in a sandstone formation with interbedded argillaceous (i.e. mudstone) units. The numerical simulation is based on the Sleipner gas field storage unit where several thin argillite layers occur within the sandstone of the Utsira Formation. With respect to forward modelling simulations that have used Sleipner Formation as a case study, it is noted that previous attempts to numerically calibrate the CO2 plume migration to time‐lapse seismic dataset using software governed by Darcy flow physics achieved poor results. In this study, CO2‐brine buoyant displacement pattern is simulated using the ECLIPSE ‘black oil’ simulator within a two‐dimensional axisymmetric geometry and a three‐dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. This investigation focussed on two key parameters affecting CO2 migration mobility, namely relative permeability and capillary forces. Examination of these parameters indicate that for the gravity current of CO2 transiting through a heterogeneous siliciclastic formation, the local capillary forces in geologic units, such as mudstone and sandstones, and the relative permeability to the invading fluid control the mass of CO2 that breaches and percolates through each unit, respectively. In numerical analysis, these processes influence the evaluation of structural and residual trapping mechanisms. Consequently, the inclusion of heterogeneities in capillary pressure and relative permeability functions, where and when applicable, advances a Darcy modelling approach to history matching and forecasting of reservoir performance. Results indicate that there is a scope for a revision of the basic premise for modelling flow properties in the interbedded mudstones and the top sand wedge at the Sleipner Field when using Darcy flow simulators.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1221-1246
Number of pages26
JournalGreenhouse Gases: Science and Technology
Volume9
Issue number6
Early online date9 Oct 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 27 Dec 2019

Fingerprint

flow modeling
mudstone
sandstone
permeability
simulator
plume
argillite
capillary pressure
forward modeling
gas field
modeling
simulation
fluid flow
trapping
physics
drainage
gravity
software
geometry
sand

Bibliographical note

This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Onoja, MU & Shariatipour, SM 2019, 'Assessing the impact of relative permeability and capillary heterogeneity on Darcy flow modelling of CO 2 storage in Utsira Formation' Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, vol. 9, no. 6,
https://doi.org/10.1002/ghg.1932, pp. 1221-1246, which has been published in final form at https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ghg.1932. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.

Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.

Keywords

  • CO sequestration
  • Darcy flow analysis
  • capillary heterogeneity
  • numerical modelling and simulation
  • relative permeability heterogeneity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry

Cite this

@article{61c1c0cc26fc41ebb006d2b3f1d60134,
title = "Assessing the impact of relative permeability and capillary heterogeneity on Darcy flow modelling of CO 2 storage in Utsira Formation",
abstract = "Predicting CO2 plume migration is an important aspect for the geological sequestration of CO2. In the absence of experimental data, the storage performance of CO2 geo‐storage can be assessed through the dynamic modelling of the fluid flow and transport properties of the rock‐fluid system using empirical formulations. Using the van Genuchten empirical model, this study documents a Darcy flow modelling approach to investigate different aspects of CO2 drainage in a sandstone formation with interbedded argillaceous (i.e. mudstone) units. The numerical simulation is based on the Sleipner gas field storage unit where several thin argillite layers occur within the sandstone of the Utsira Formation. With respect to forward modelling simulations that have used Sleipner Formation as a case study, it is noted that previous attempts to numerically calibrate the CO2 plume migration to time‐lapse seismic dataset using software governed by Darcy flow physics achieved poor results. In this study, CO2‐brine buoyant displacement pattern is simulated using the ECLIPSE ‘black oil’ simulator within a two‐dimensional axisymmetric geometry and a three‐dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. This investigation focussed on two key parameters affecting CO2 migration mobility, namely relative permeability and capillary forces. Examination of these parameters indicate that for the gravity current of CO2 transiting through a heterogeneous siliciclastic formation, the local capillary forces in geologic units, such as mudstone and sandstones, and the relative permeability to the invading fluid control the mass of CO2 that breaches and percolates through each unit, respectively. In numerical analysis, these processes influence the evaluation of structural and residual trapping mechanisms. Consequently, the inclusion of heterogeneities in capillary pressure and relative permeability functions, where and when applicable, advances a Darcy modelling approach to history matching and forecasting of reservoir performance. Results indicate that there is a scope for a revision of the basic premise for modelling flow properties in the interbedded mudstones and the top sand wedge at the Sleipner Field when using Darcy flow simulators.",
keywords = "CO sequestration, Darcy flow analysis, capillary heterogeneity, numerical modelling and simulation, relative permeability heterogeneity",
author = "Onoja, {Michael U.} and Shariatipour, {Seyed M.}",
note = "This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Onoja, MU & Shariatipour, SM 2019, 'Assessing the impact of relative permeability and capillary heterogeneity on Darcy flow modelling of CO 2 storage in Utsira Formation' Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, vol. 9, no. 6, https://doi.org/10.1002/ghg.1932, pp. 1221-1246, which has been published in final form at https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ghg.1932. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving. Copyright {\circledC} and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.",
year = "2019",
month = "12",
day = "27",
doi = "10.1002/ghg.1932",
language = "English",
volume = "9",
pages = "1221--1246",
journal = "Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology",
issn = "2152-3878",
publisher = "Wiley",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Assessing the impact of relative permeability and capillary heterogeneity on Darcy flow modelling of CO 2 storage in Utsira Formation

AU - Onoja, Michael U.

AU - Shariatipour, Seyed M.

N1 - This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Onoja, MU & Shariatipour, SM 2019, 'Assessing the impact of relative permeability and capillary heterogeneity on Darcy flow modelling of CO 2 storage in Utsira Formation' Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, vol. 9, no. 6, https://doi.org/10.1002/ghg.1932, pp. 1221-1246, which has been published in final form at https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ghg.1932. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving. Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.

PY - 2019/12/27

Y1 - 2019/12/27

N2 - Predicting CO2 plume migration is an important aspect for the geological sequestration of CO2. In the absence of experimental data, the storage performance of CO2 geo‐storage can be assessed through the dynamic modelling of the fluid flow and transport properties of the rock‐fluid system using empirical formulations. Using the van Genuchten empirical model, this study documents a Darcy flow modelling approach to investigate different aspects of CO2 drainage in a sandstone formation with interbedded argillaceous (i.e. mudstone) units. The numerical simulation is based on the Sleipner gas field storage unit where several thin argillite layers occur within the sandstone of the Utsira Formation. With respect to forward modelling simulations that have used Sleipner Formation as a case study, it is noted that previous attempts to numerically calibrate the CO2 plume migration to time‐lapse seismic dataset using software governed by Darcy flow physics achieved poor results. In this study, CO2‐brine buoyant displacement pattern is simulated using the ECLIPSE ‘black oil’ simulator within a two‐dimensional axisymmetric geometry and a three‐dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. This investigation focussed on two key parameters affecting CO2 migration mobility, namely relative permeability and capillary forces. Examination of these parameters indicate that for the gravity current of CO2 transiting through a heterogeneous siliciclastic formation, the local capillary forces in geologic units, such as mudstone and sandstones, and the relative permeability to the invading fluid control the mass of CO2 that breaches and percolates through each unit, respectively. In numerical analysis, these processes influence the evaluation of structural and residual trapping mechanisms. Consequently, the inclusion of heterogeneities in capillary pressure and relative permeability functions, where and when applicable, advances a Darcy modelling approach to history matching and forecasting of reservoir performance. Results indicate that there is a scope for a revision of the basic premise for modelling flow properties in the interbedded mudstones and the top sand wedge at the Sleipner Field when using Darcy flow simulators.

AB - Predicting CO2 plume migration is an important aspect for the geological sequestration of CO2. In the absence of experimental data, the storage performance of CO2 geo‐storage can be assessed through the dynamic modelling of the fluid flow and transport properties of the rock‐fluid system using empirical formulations. Using the van Genuchten empirical model, this study documents a Darcy flow modelling approach to investigate different aspects of CO2 drainage in a sandstone formation with interbedded argillaceous (i.e. mudstone) units. The numerical simulation is based on the Sleipner gas field storage unit where several thin argillite layers occur within the sandstone of the Utsira Formation. With respect to forward modelling simulations that have used Sleipner Formation as a case study, it is noted that previous attempts to numerically calibrate the CO2 plume migration to time‐lapse seismic dataset using software governed by Darcy flow physics achieved poor results. In this study, CO2‐brine buoyant displacement pattern is simulated using the ECLIPSE ‘black oil’ simulator within a two‐dimensional axisymmetric geometry and a three‐dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. This investigation focussed on two key parameters affecting CO2 migration mobility, namely relative permeability and capillary forces. Examination of these parameters indicate that for the gravity current of CO2 transiting through a heterogeneous siliciclastic formation, the local capillary forces in geologic units, such as mudstone and sandstones, and the relative permeability to the invading fluid control the mass of CO2 that breaches and percolates through each unit, respectively. In numerical analysis, these processes influence the evaluation of structural and residual trapping mechanisms. Consequently, the inclusion of heterogeneities in capillary pressure and relative permeability functions, where and when applicable, advances a Darcy modelling approach to history matching and forecasting of reservoir performance. Results indicate that there is a scope for a revision of the basic premise for modelling flow properties in the interbedded mudstones and the top sand wedge at the Sleipner Field when using Darcy flow simulators.

KW - CO sequestration

KW - Darcy flow analysis

KW - capillary heterogeneity

KW - numerical modelling and simulation

KW - relative permeability heterogeneity

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85074020977&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - https://doi.org/10.1002/ghg.1932

U2 - 10.1002/ghg.1932

DO - 10.1002/ghg.1932

M3 - Article

VL - 9

SP - 1221

EP - 1246

JO - Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology

JF - Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology

SN - 2152-3878

IS - 6

ER -