Artificial Neural Network estimation of wheel rolling resistance in clay loam soil

H. Taghavifar, A. Mardani, H. Karim-Maslak, H. Kalbkhani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


Despite of complex and nonlinear relationships imparting soil–wheel interactions, however, logical, non-randomized, and manifold relations tackle to express and model the interactions which are valid for variety of conditions and are likely to be established whereas mathematical equations are restricted to present. A 3-10-1 feed-forward Artificial Neural Network (ANN) with back propagation (BP) learning algorithm was utilized to estimate the rolling resistance of wheel as affected by velocity, tire inflation pressure, and normal load acting on wheel inside the soil bin facility creating controlled condition for test run. The model represented mean squared error MSE of 0.0257 and predicted relative error values with less than 10% and high coefficient of determination (R2) equal to 0.9322 utilizing experimental output data obtained from single-wheel tester of soil bin facility. These rewarding outcomes signify the fitting exploit of ANN for prediction of rolling resistance as a practical model with high accuracy in clay loam soil. Derived data revealed rolling resistance is less affected by applicable velocities of tractors in farmlands nevertheless is much influenced by inflation pressure and vertical load. An approximate constant relationship existed between velocity and rolling resistance implying that rolling resistance is not function of velocity chiefly in lower ones. Increase of inflation pressure results in decrease of rolling resistance while increase of vertical load brings about increase of rolling resistance which was measured to be function of vertical load by polynomial with order of two model validated by conventional models such as Wismer and Luth model.

Graphical abstract
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3544-3551
Number of pages8
JournalApplied Soft Computing Journal
Issue number8
Early online date24 Apr 2013
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Artificial Neural Networks
  • Rolling resistance
  • Soil bin
  • Velocity
  • Tire inflation pressure
  • Vertical load


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