Artificial Intelligence for skeleton-based physical rehabilitation action evaluation: A systematic review

Sara Sardari, Sara Sharifzadeh, Alireza Daneshkhah, Bahareh Nakisa, Seng W. Loke, Vasile Palade, Michael Duncan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)
89 Downloads (Pure)


Performing prescribed physical exercises during home-based rehabilitation programs plays an important role in regaining muscle strength and improving balance for people with different physical disabilities. However, patients attending these programs are not able to assess their action performance in the absence of a medical expert. Recently, vision-based sensors have been deployed in the activity monitoring domain. They are capable of capturing accurate skeleton data. Furthermore, there have been significant advancements in Computer Vision (CV) and Deep Learning (DL) methodologies. These factors have promoted the solutions for designing automatic patient's activity monitoring models. Then, improving such systems’ performance to assist patients and physiotherapists has attracted wide interest of the research community. This paper provides a comprehensive and up-to-date literature review on different stages of skeleton data acquisition processes for the aim of physio exercise monitoring. Then, the previously reported Artificial Intelligence (AI) - based methodologies for skeleton data analysis will be reviewed. In particular, feature learning from skeleton data, evaluation, and feedback generation for the purpose of rehabilitation monitoring will be studied. Furthermore, the associated challenges to these processes will be reviewed. Finally, the paper puts forward several suggestions for future research directions in this area.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106835
Number of pages21
JournalComputers in Biology and Medicine
Early online date31 Mar 2023
Publication statusPublished - May 2023

Bibliographical note

© 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (


The authors would like to thank Coventry University and Deakin University for jointly funding this PhD project titled “Activity Recognition Using Digital Frame Streams for Monitoring Rehab Period”. Publisher Copyright: © 2023 The Author(s)


  • Activity evaluation
  • Activity recognition
  • Computer vision
  • Deep learning
  • Physical rehabilitation
  • Skeleton data

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Health Informatics


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