The large eddy simulation (LES) approach—solving numerically the large scales of a turbulent system and accounting for the small-scale influence through a model—is applied to nonlinear gyrokinetic systems that are driven by a number of different microinstabilities. Comparisons between modeled, lower resolution, and higher resolution simulations are performed for an experimental measurable quantity, the electron density fluctuation spectrum. Moreover, the validation and applicability of LES is demonstrated through a series of diagnostics based on the free energetics of the system.
Bañón Navarro, A., Teaca, B., Jenko, F., Hammett, G. W., Happel, T., & ASDEX Upgrade Team (2014). Applications of large eddy simulation methods to gyrokinetic turbulence. Physics of Plasmas, 21, . https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4868235