Anthocyanin-Rich Blackcurrant Extract Preserves Gastrointestinal Barrier Permeability and Reduces Enterocyte Damage but Has No Effect on Microbial Translocation and Inflammation After Exertional Heat Stress

Ben J. Lee, Tessa R. Flood, Ania M. Hiles, Ella F. Walker, Lucy E.V. Wheeler, Kimberly M. Ashdown, Mark E.T. Willems, Rianne Costello, Luke D. Greisler, Phebe A. Romano, Garrett W. Hill, Matthew R. Kuennen

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    Abstract

    This study investigated the effects of 7 days of 600 mg/day anthocyanin-rich blackcurrant extract intake on small intestinal permeability, enterocyte damage, microbial translocation, and inflammation following exertional heat stress. Twelve recreationally active men (maximal aerobic capacity = 55.6 ± 6.0 ml·kg−1·min−1) ran (70% VO2max) for 60 min in an environmental chamber (34 °C, 40% relative humidity) on two occasions (placebo/blackcurrant, randomized double-blind crossover). Permeability was assessed from a 4-hr urinary excretion of lactulose and rhamnose and expressed as a ratio of lactulose/rhamnose. Venous blood samples were taken at rest and 20, 60, and 240 min after exercise to measure enterocyte damage (intestinal fatty acid-binding protein); microbial translocation (soluble CD14, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein); and interleukins 6, interleukins 10, and interleukins 1 receptor antagonist. Exercise increased rectal temperature (by ∼2.8 °C) and heart rate (by ∼123 beats/min) in each condition. Blackcurrant supplementation led to a ∼12% reduction in lactulose/rhamnose ratio (p < .0034) and enterocyte damage (∼40% reduction in intestinal fatty acid-binding protein area under the curve; p < .0001) relative to placebo. No between-condition differences were observed immediately after exercise for lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (mean, 95% confidence interval [CI]; +80%, 95% CI [+61%, +99%]); soluble CD14 (+37%, 95% CI [+22%, +51%]); interleukins 6 (+494%, 95% CI [+394%, +690%]); interleukins 10 (+288%, 95% CI [+105%, +470%]); or interleukins 1 receptor antagonist (+47%, 95% CI [+13%, +80%]; all time main effects). No between-condition differences for these markers were observed after 60 or 240 min of recovery. Blackcurrant extract preserves the GI barrier; however, at subclinical levels, this had no effect on microbial translocation and downstream inflammatory processes.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)265-274
    Number of pages10
    JournalInternational Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
    Volume32
    Issue number4
    Early online date14 Mar 2022
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2022

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    Keywords

    • hyperthermia
    • anthocyanins
    • small intestinal permeability

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