We study a resource allocation problem for the uplink of a virtualized massive multiple-input multiple-output system, where the antennas at the base station are priced and virtualized among the service providers (SPs). The mobile network operator (MNO) who owns the infrastructure decides the price per antenna, and a Stackelberg game is formulated for the net profit maximization of the MNO, while the minimum rate requirements of SPs are satisfied. To solve the bi-level optimization problem of the MNO, we first derive the closed-form best responses of the SPs with respect to the pricing strategies of the MNO, such that the problem of the MNO can be reduced to a single-level optimization. Then, via transformations and approximations, we cast the MNO's problem with integer constraints into a signomial geometric program (SGP), and we propose an iterative algorithm based on the successive convex approximation (SCA) to solve the SGP. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has performance close to the global optimum. Moreover, the interactions between the MNO and SPs in different scenarios are explored via simulations.
Bibliographical noteOpen Access
Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.
Liu, Y., Derakhshani, M., Parsaeefard, S., Lambotharan, S., & Wong, K-K. (2018). Antenna allocation and pricing in virtualized massive MIMO networks via Stackelberg game. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 66(11), 5220-5234. https://doi.org/10.1109/TCOMM.2018.2846574