The new era of IoT brings the necessity of smart synergy for diverse communication and computation entities. The two extremes are, on the one hand, the 5G Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communications (URLLC) required for Industrial IoT (IIoT) and Vehicle Communications (V2V, V2I, V2X). While on the other hand, the Ultra-Low Power, Wide-Range, Low Bit-rate Communications, such as Sigfox, LoRa/LoRaWAN, NB-IoT, Cat-M1, etc.; used for smart metering, smart logistics, monitoring, alarms, tracking applications. This extreme variety and diversity must work in synergy, all inter-operating/inter-working with the Internet. The communication solutions must mutually cooperate, but there must be a synergy in a broader sense that includes the various communication solutions and all the processing and storage capabilities from the edge cloud to the deep-cloud. In this paper, we consider a non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA)-based device to device (D2D) communication system coexisting with a cellular network and utilize Greedy Asynchronous Distributed Interference Avoidance Algorithm (GADIA) for dynamic frequency allocation strategy. We analyze a max–min fairness optimization problem with energy budget constraints to provide a reasonable boundary rate for the downlink to all devices and cellular users in the network for a given total transmit power. A comprehensive simulation and numerical evaluation is performed. Further, we compare the performance of maximum achievable rate and energy efficiency (EE) at a given spectral efficiency (SE) while employing NOMA and orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA).
Bibliographical noteThis is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
FunderFunding Information: Acknowledgments: This research is supported by Tempus Public Foundation, Stipendium Hungar-icum Scholarship Programme and High Speed Networks Lab, Department of Telecommunications and Media Informatics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics. Funding Information: Funding: This work was supported by the Ericsson—BME 5G joint research and cooperation project, partly funded by the National Research, Development and Innovation Office, Hungary with project number 2018-1.3.1-VKE-2018-00005.