Analysis of Acoustic Emissions for Determination of the Mechanical Effects of Scratch Tests

Timothy Devenport, Bernard Rolfe, Michael Pereira, James M. Griffin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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Acoustic Emission (AE) is a promising technique for measuring tool wear online and in real time. In this work, scratch tests were conducted to better understand the “pre-wear” AE response based on loading conditions that were not sufficient to generate galling. The scratch tests used the same type of indenter against two different sheet materials: aluminum and steel. The results showed that AE parameters such as the mean frequency, Centroid frequency and Shannon entropy outperformed other frequency domain techniques by discriminating between the two sheet materials in scratch tests. From the literature, the frequency region of interest was expected to be sub 300 kHz. However, in this study, activity below this threshold was found to be noise, whereas distinct frequencies were found at much higher frequencies than expected. These results are compared against single grit “SG” tests of both mild steel- and nickel-based superalloys to allow comparison of the two test methods and materials used. This comparison showed that the SG tests excited the acoustic emission in ways in which the scratch tests did not. Another factor when using acoustic emissions to monitor sheet metal forming is the differences obtained in energy–frequency mapping, where many report the galling phenomena between a certain amplitude and frequency range. Such results are specific to the setup and the materials/geometries used. Further work presented here compares different scratch tests where energy–frequency mapping is different for different materials/geometries.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6724
Number of pages22
JournalApplied Sciences
Issue number13
Early online date2 Jul 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2 Jul 2022

Bibliographical note

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • General Engineering
  • Instrumentation
  • General Materials Science


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