Volcanic activity consists of the transfer of heat from the interior of the Earth to the surface. The characteristics of the heat emitted relate directly to the geological processes underway and can be observed from space, using the thermal sensors present on many Earth-orbiting satellites. For over 50 years, scientists have utilised such sensors and are now able to determine the sort of volcanic activity being displayed without hazardous and costly field expeditions. This review will describe the theoretical basis of the discipline and then discuss the sensors available and the history of their use. Challenges and opportunities for future developments are then discussed.
- infrared remote sensing
- Earth observation