An Investigation of Left Ventricular Valve Disorders and the Mechano-Electric Feedback Using a Synergistic Lumped Parameter Cardiovascular Numerical Model

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Abstract

Cardiac diseases and failure make up one of largest contributions to global mortality and significantly detriment the quality of life for millions of others. Disorders in the valves of the left ventricle are a prominent example of heart disease, with prolapse, regurgitation, and stenoses—the three main valve disorders. It is widely known that mitral valve prolapse increases the susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmia. Here, we investigate stenoses and regurgitation of the mitral and aortic valves in the left ventricle using a synergistic low-order numerical model. The model synergy derives from the incorporation of the mechanical, chemical, and electrical elements. As an alternative framework to the time-varying elastance (TVE) method, it allows feedback mechanisms at work in the heart to be considered. The TVE model imposes the ventricular pressure–volume relationship using a periodic function rather than calculating it consistently. Using our synergistic approach, the effects of valve disorders on the mechano-electric-feedback (MEF) are investigated. The MEF is the influence of cellular mechanics on the electrical activity, and significantly contributes to the generation of arrhythmia. We further investigate stenoses and regurgitation of the mitral and aortic valves and their relationship with the MEF and generation of arrhythmia. Mitral valve stenosis is found to increase the sensitivity to arrhythmia-stimulating systolic stretch, and reduces the sensitivity to diastolic stretch. Aortic valve stenosis does not change the sensitivity to arrhythmia-stimulating stretch, and regurgitation reduces it. A key result is found when valve regurgitation is accompanied by diastolic stretch. In the presence of MEF disorder, ectopic beats become far more frequent when accompanied by valve regurgitation. Therefore, arrhythmia resulting from a disorder in the MEF will be more severe when valve regurgitation is present.
Original languageEnglish
Article number454
Number of pages18
JournalBioengineering
Volume9
Issue number9
Early online date8 Sept 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 8 Sept 2022

Bibliographical note

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Keywords

  • non-linear dynamics
  • multiscale model
  • cardiac cycle
  • mechano-electric feedback
  • lumped- parameter model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Mathematics(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

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