An Improved Max-Min Game Theory Control of Fuel Cell and Battery Hybrid Energy System Against System Uncertainty

Weitao Zou, Jianwei Li, Qingqing Yang, Zhijie Duan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, a new energy management strategy (EMS) for a smart building with fuel cell and battery hybrid energy storage (FBHES) is proposed based on an improved game theory with higher system efficiency and extending lifetime for both battery and fuel cell. The building working as a smart energy-hub is regarded as one of the key factors for energy-saving and long-term emissions reduction. EMS which determines the optimal power flow for each energy sector is of great importance for smart buildings subject to the increasing renewable generations, various energy storages and flexible loads. The energy storage system plays a key role to unlock the management regions and control constraints of the EMS, however, the lifetime of the energy storage device is generally less than the expected because of the power uncertainty brought by new energy sectors. Therefore, in this paper, the FBHES and the uncertainty of the demand power are considered as two aspects in the game, aiming at decoupling the randomness of electricity demand and hybrid energy storage performance. The EMS is developed with an improved max-min game theory (GT), where the compensation effect of the battery is developed to keep power balance in the smart building system. Simulation results show that the degradation of the fuel cell obtained by the proposed method, the improved GT, which is 12.64% lower than traditional GT. Meanwhile, the lifetime of the battery under the proposed method is increased by 23.16% and 82.81% compared with mixed integer linear programming energy management strategy and rule-based strategy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)78-87
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics
Issue number1
Early online date25 Apr 2022
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:


  • Batteries
  • Battery
  • Energy management
  • Energy management strategy
  • Fuel cells
  • Game theory
  • Hybrid energy storage system
  • Hydrogen
  • Hydrogen storage
  • Smart building system
  • Smart buildings

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'An Improved Max-Min Game Theory Control of Fuel Cell and Battery Hybrid Energy System Against System Uncertainty'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this