An Experimental Investigation of Turbulence Features Induced by Typical Artificial M-Shaped Unit Reefs

Anping Shu, Jiping Qin, Matteo Rubinato, Tao Sun, Mengyao Wang, Shu Wang, Le Wang, Jaipin Zhu, Fuyang Zhu

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3 Citations (Scopus)
17 Downloads (Pure)


Artificial reefs are considered to have the function of repairing and improving the coastal habitat and increasing the fishery production, which are mainly achieved by changing the regional hydrodynamic conditions. The characteristics of flow turbulence structure are an important part of the regional hydrodynamic characteristics. Different methods are used to evaluate the performance of artificial reefs according to their shape and the purpose for which the reef was built. For this study, the M-shaped unit reefs, which are to be put into the area of Liaodong Bay, were selected as the research object and have never been fully investigated before. Experimental tests were conducted to assess the effect of these M-shaped artificial reefs on the vertical and longitudinal turbulent intensity under different hydraulic conditions and geometries, and datasets were collected by using the Particle Image Velocimetry technique implemented within the experimental facility. The distribution and variation characteristics of the turbulence intensity were analyzed, and the main results obtained can confirm that in the artificial reef area, there was an extremely clear turbulent boundary. Furthermore, the area of influence of the longitudinal turbulence was identified to be larger than that of the vertical turbulence, and the position where the maximum turbulence intensity appeared was close to where the maximum velocity was measured. Finally, results demonstrate that low turbulence conditions are typically located in front of the unit reef, the general turbulence area is located within the upwelling zone, and the more intense turbulence area is located between the two M-shaped monocases. These results are extremely important, because they provide the local authorities with specific knowledge about what could be the effect of these M-shaped reefs within the area where they will be implemented, and therefore, specific actions can be taken in consideration with the geometrical setup suggested as an optimal solution within this study
Original languageEnglish
Article number1393
Number of pages21
JournalApplied Sciences
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 4 Feb 2021

Bibliographical note

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


National key research and development plan (Grant No. 2018YFC1406400) and the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. U1901212).


  • Artificial reef
  • Bohai Sea
  • Experimental Modelling
  • Liaodong Bay
  • Particle image velocimetry
  • Turbulence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Instrumentation
  • Engineering(all)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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