An examination of the gender gap in smartphone adoption and use in Arab countries: a cross-national study.

Nisreen Ameen, Robert Willis, Mahmood Shah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Citations (Scopus)
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This is the first research to study gender differences among consumers in a cross-national context in the Middle East: the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Jordan. A conceptual framework was developed by extending the extended unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) further. It was tested among individuals aged 18–29 years using multi-stage cluster sampling. A total sample of around 900 usable responses from both countries were included in the analysis. The factors national IT development, enjoyment, perceived relative advantage, price value and effort expectancy were found to be significant in the model among Arab women in the UAE and Jordan. The study has theoretical, social and policy relating contributions. The study shows how an extended UTAUT2 fits among both genders in a cross-national context. The study is helpful for policymakers who intend to reduce the gender gap in smartphone adoption and use. The advancement of national IT development and the presence of effective policies focusing on women were found important in both countries.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)148-162
Number of pages15
JournalComputers in Human Behavior
Early online date3 Aug 2018
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2018

Bibliographical note

NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Computers in Human Behavior. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Computers in Human Behavior, Vol 89, 2018 DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2018.07.045

© 2017, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International


  • Smartphone adoption
  • Emerging countries
  • Gender gap
  • Mobile communications
  • Arab countries


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