An analysis of the bonding mechanisms active in a high power diode laser generated two-stage ceramic tile grout

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It is quite possible to bring about changes in the wettability characteristics of a two-stage ceramic tile grout by means of high power diode laser (HPDL) surface treatment. Such changes manifest themselves as a reduction in the contact angle, θ, and are due to the HPDL inducing changes which reduce the surface roughness, increase the surface O 2 content and increasing the polar component of the surface energy. What is more, HPDL treatment of the two-stage ceramic tile grout surface was found to effect an improvement in the bonding characteristics by increasing the work of adhesion, W ad. Along with wettability experiments carried out with selected liquid-metals, an electronic approach was used to identify the bonding characteristics of the two-stage ceramic tile grout before and after HPDL. It is thought that HPDL induced changes to the two-stage ceramic tile grout produced a surface with a reduced bandgap energy which consequently increased W ad by increasing the electron transfer at the metal-oxide interface and thus the metal-oxide interactions. Furthermore, it was suggested that the increase in W ad of the two-stage ceramic tile grout after HPDL treatment was possibility due to a correlation existing between the wettability and ionicity of the two-stage ceramic tile grout. Here it is believed that the HPDL treated surface is less ionic in nature than the untreated surface and therefore exhibits better wettability characteristics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)289-309
Number of pages21
JournalLasers in Engineering
Issue number4
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 18 Oct 2002
Externally publishedYes



  • Adhesion
  • Bonding
  • Ceramic
  • Grout
  • High power diode laser (HPDL)
  • Metal
  • Wettability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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