An 80-year projection of nZEB strategies in extreme climatic conditions of Iraq

Yahya Wisam Mahdi Al-Saeed, Abdullahi Ahmed, Erika Parn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
85 Downloads (Pure)


Purpose – The Middle Eastern terrain is expected to encounter unprecedented climatic conditions before the turn of the next century (circa. 80 years), emanating from extreme heat waves that exceed the critical threshold of habitable conditions. This threatens to cause a significant challenge that is exacerbated by a gap between the supply and demand of affordable energy. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of utilising nearly zero-energy buildings (nZEB) to improve the performance of residential buildings in Iraq and the Middle East.

Design/methodology/approach – This study uses Iraq as a case-study because of the breadth of climatic conditions experienced across its wide-reaching territory and also because of the recent critical infrastructural challenges following the geo-political crisis. Three virtual buildings were simulated for Baghdad, Mosul and Basra cities to narrow the confines of the region to achieve nZEB under current and future climatic weather scenarios.

Findings – The findings showed that in all three cases studies, the buildings located within the three climatic regions in Iraq could achieve both significant annual energy reductions as well as nZEB standards which could range from 41 per cent to 87 per cent for current climatic conditions and 40 per cent to 84 per cent by 2080. An analysis has also been carried out for the three case-study cities which revealed significant operational-cost savings achievable through nZEB buildings.

Originality/value – There are currently limited studies that investigate such positive potential for nZEB strategies under the current and predicted future climatic scenarios in the Middle East.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)472-492
Number of pages21
JournalInternational Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation
Issue number3
Early online date24 Mar 2020
Publication statusPublished - 28 Apr 2020

Bibliographical note

Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright
owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study,
without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.


  • Building performance simulation
  • Climate positive building
  • Hot arid climate
  • Middle East
  • Nearly zero-energy buildings
  • Residential buildings

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction


Dive into the research topics of 'An 80-year projection of nZEB strategies in extreme climatic conditions of Iraq'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this