Air flow and pressure inside a pressure-swirl spray and their effects on spray development

S. Moon, E. Abo-Serie, C. Bae

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    46 Citations (Scopus)


    Air flow and pressure inside a pressure-swirl spray for direct injection (DI) gasoline engines and their effects on spray development have been analyzed at different injector operating conditions. A simulation tool was utilized and the static air pressure at the centerline of the spray was measured to investigate the static pressure and flow structure inside the swirl spray. To investigate the effect of static air pressure on swirl spray development, a liquid film model was applied and the Mie-scattered images were captured. The simulation and experiment showed that recirculation vortex and air pressure drop inside the swirl spray were observable and the air pressure drop was greater at high injection pressure. At high fuel temperature, the air pressure at the nozzle exit showed higher value compared to the atmospheric pressure and then continuously decreased up to few millimeters distance from the nozzle exit. The pressure drop at high fuel temperatures was more than that of atmospheric temperature. This reduced air pressure was recovered to the atmospheric pressure at further downstream. The results from the liquid film model and macroscopic spray images showed that the air pressure started to affect the liquid film trajectory about 3 mm from the nozzle exit and this effect was sustained until the air pressure recovered to the atmospheric pressure. However, the entrained air motion and droplet size have more significant influence on the spray development after the most of the liquid sheet is broken-up and the spray loses its initial momentum.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)222-231
    Number of pages10
    JournalExperimental Thermal and Fluid Science
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 2009


    • Pressure-swirl spray
    • Air flow
    • Static air pressure
    • Swirl number
    • Recirculation vortex


    Dive into the research topics of 'Air flow and pressure inside a pressure-swirl spray and their effects on spray development'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this