Agroforestry: Challenges and Opportunities in Rhino Camp and Imvepi Refugee Settlements of Arua District, Northern Uganda

Evangeline Therese Grosrenaud, Clement Akais Okia, Andrew Adam-Bradford, Liz Trenchard

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    3 Citations (Scopus)
    39 Downloads (Pure)


    In the past, the environment has been a low priority in humanitarian operations for refugee agencies and implementing partners because of the emergency context. However, actions to safeguard the environment can be undertaken concurrently with emergency interventions and organisations should take responsibility for conserving the environment in refugee settlements in the same way that they are responsible for the welfare of refugees. Tree-based interventions, such as agroforestry, have been demonstrated as a viable option for resilience and sustainability in landscapes with increasing human pressure. Refugee settlements are subject to intense human pressure and suffer environmental degradation as a consequence. The potential benefits of agroforestry in refugee settlements though are not well researched. This study explores the implementation of agroforestry schemes in refugee settlements in the Arua district of Uganda. Using semi-structured interviews with the beneficiaries of the International Centre for Research on Agroforestry (ICRAF) agroforestry projects in Imvepi and Rhino camps, the study identifies key benefits for participants and the environment. These include improved livelihoods and nutrition. However, there are challenges to overcome before agroforestry can be made more widely available in refugee camps. Key barriers include insufficient land, limited water availability and lack of local knowledge, which limits productivity. This research shows how relief, rehabilitation and development can work hand in hand to reduce social and environmental pressure in the targeted refugee settlements and host communities and improve the well-being of beneficiary households by creating opportunities for income generation, improving nutrition and contributing to social cohesion.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number2134
    Number of pages18
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 17 Feb 2021

    Bibliographical note

    Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/)


    This research was funded by the Department for International Development under a collaborative project between Deutsche Gesellschaft f?r Internationale Zusammenarbeit and World Agroforestry Centre on Sustainable Management of Natural Resources in the Refugee Context in Uganda.


    • agroforestry
    • multifunctional landscapes
    • resilience
    • relief
    • restoration
    • environment

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
    • Development
    • Environmental Science(all)
    • Nature and Landscape Conservation


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