ADHD is a risk factor for overweight and obesity in children.

Ellen Fliers, Jan Buitelaar, Athanasios Maras, Kim Bul, Esther Hohle, Stephen Faraone, Barbara Franke, Nanda Rommelse

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: Although hyperactivity would seem to increase energy expenditure, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) appears to increase the risk for being overweight. This study examined the body mass index (BMI) in children with ADHD and its relationship with age, gender, ADHD and comorbid symptom severity, inhibitory control, developmental coordination disorder, sleep duration, and methylphenidate use. Method: Participants were 372 Dutch children with ADHD combined type aged 5 to 17 years participating in the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study. We categorized BMI according to
international age- and gender-specific reference values and calculated BMI standard deviation scores (BMISDS). The control population was matched for age, gender, and ethnicity and originated from the same birth cohort as the ADHD group. Inhibitory control was measured by the computerized Stop-signal task. Prevalence differences of underweight, overweight, and obesity between groups were expressed in odds ratios. We used linear regression analyses with gender, age, parent- and teacher-rated ADHD and comorbid scores, inhibitory
control, sleep duration, motor coordination, and methylphenidate use to predict BMI-SDS. Results: Boys with ADHD aged 10 to 17 years and girls aged 10 to 12 years were more likely to be overweight than children in the general Dutch population. Younger girls and female teenagers, however, seemed to be at lower risk for being overweight. Higher oppositional behavior and social communication problems related to higher BMI-SDS scores, whereas more stereotyped behaviors related to lower BMI-SDS scores. We found no effects of the other examined associated risk factors on BMI-SDS. Conclusions: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in boys is a risk factor for overweight. In girls with ADHD, the prevalence of overweight is age dependent and most pronounced in girls aged 10 to 12 years. They have a 4-fold risk of being obese. Higher oppositional and social communication problems pose an increased risk for overweight, whereas sleep duration, motor coordination problems, and methylphenidate use do not.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)566-574
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics
Volume34
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2013
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Pediatric Obesity
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
Body Mass Index
Methylphenidate
Sleep
Social Problems
Motor Skills Disorders
Communication
Stereotyped Behavior
Thinness
Energy Metabolism
Population
Linear Models
Reference Values
Obesity
Odds Ratio
Regression Analysis
Parturition

Keywords

  • attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • ADHD
  • body mass index
  • BMI
  • developmental coordination disorder
  • DCD
  • sleep
  • methylphenidate

Cite this

ADHD is a risk factor for overweight and obesity in children. / Fliers, Ellen; Buitelaar, Jan ; Maras, Athanasios; Bul, Kim; Hohle, Esther; Faraone, Stephen; Franke, Barbara; Rommelse, Nanda.

In: Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, Vol. 34, 04.2013, p. 566-574.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Fliers, E, Buitelaar, J, Maras, A, Bul, K, Hohle, E, Faraone, S, Franke, B & Rommelse, N 2013, 'ADHD is a risk factor for overweight and obesity in children.' Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, vol. 34, pp. 566-574. https://doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0b013e3182a50a67
Fliers, Ellen ; Buitelaar, Jan ; Maras, Athanasios ; Bul, Kim ; Hohle, Esther ; Faraone, Stephen ; Franke, Barbara ; Rommelse, Nanda. / ADHD is a risk factor for overweight and obesity in children. In: Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics. 2013 ; Vol. 34. pp. 566-574.
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T1 - ADHD is a risk factor for overweight and obesity in children.

AU - Fliers, Ellen

AU - Buitelaar, Jan

AU - Maras, Athanasios

AU - Bul, Kim

AU - Hohle, Esther

AU - Faraone, Stephen

AU - Franke, Barbara

AU - Rommelse, Nanda

PY - 2013/4

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N2 - Objective: Although hyperactivity would seem to increase energy expenditure, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) appears to increase the risk for being overweight. This study examined the body mass index (BMI) in children with ADHD and its relationship with age, gender, ADHD and comorbid symptom severity, inhibitory control, developmental coordination disorder, sleep duration, and methylphenidate use. Method: Participants were 372 Dutch children with ADHD combined type aged 5 to 17 years participating in the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study. We categorized BMI according tointernational age- and gender-specific reference values and calculated BMI standard deviation scores (BMISDS). The control population was matched for age, gender, and ethnicity and originated from the same birth cohort as the ADHD group. Inhibitory control was measured by the computerized Stop-signal task. Prevalence differences of underweight, overweight, and obesity between groups were expressed in odds ratios. We used linear regression analyses with gender, age, parent- and teacher-rated ADHD and comorbid scores, inhibitorycontrol, sleep duration, motor coordination, and methylphenidate use to predict BMI-SDS. Results: Boys with ADHD aged 10 to 17 years and girls aged 10 to 12 years were more likely to be overweight than children in the general Dutch population. Younger girls and female teenagers, however, seemed to be at lower risk for being overweight. Higher oppositional behavior and social communication problems related to higher BMI-SDS scores, whereas more stereotyped behaviors related to lower BMI-SDS scores. We found no effects of the other examined associated risk factors on BMI-SDS. Conclusions: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in boys is a risk factor for overweight. In girls with ADHD, the prevalence of overweight is age dependent and most pronounced in girls aged 10 to 12 years. They have a 4-fold risk of being obese. Higher oppositional and social communication problems pose an increased risk for overweight, whereas sleep duration, motor coordination problems, and methylphenidate use do not.

AB - Objective: Although hyperactivity would seem to increase energy expenditure, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) appears to increase the risk for being overweight. This study examined the body mass index (BMI) in children with ADHD and its relationship with age, gender, ADHD and comorbid symptom severity, inhibitory control, developmental coordination disorder, sleep duration, and methylphenidate use. Method: Participants were 372 Dutch children with ADHD combined type aged 5 to 17 years participating in the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study. We categorized BMI according tointernational age- and gender-specific reference values and calculated BMI standard deviation scores (BMISDS). The control population was matched for age, gender, and ethnicity and originated from the same birth cohort as the ADHD group. Inhibitory control was measured by the computerized Stop-signal task. Prevalence differences of underweight, overweight, and obesity between groups were expressed in odds ratios. We used linear regression analyses with gender, age, parent- and teacher-rated ADHD and comorbid scores, inhibitorycontrol, sleep duration, motor coordination, and methylphenidate use to predict BMI-SDS. Results: Boys with ADHD aged 10 to 17 years and girls aged 10 to 12 years were more likely to be overweight than children in the general Dutch population. Younger girls and female teenagers, however, seemed to be at lower risk for being overweight. Higher oppositional behavior and social communication problems related to higher BMI-SDS scores, whereas more stereotyped behaviors related to lower BMI-SDS scores. We found no effects of the other examined associated risk factors on BMI-SDS. Conclusions: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in boys is a risk factor for overweight. In girls with ADHD, the prevalence of overweight is age dependent and most pronounced in girls aged 10 to 12 years. They have a 4-fold risk of being obese. Higher oppositional and social communication problems pose an increased risk for overweight, whereas sleep duration, motor coordination problems, and methylphenidate use do not.

KW - attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

KW - ADHD

KW - body mass index

KW - BMI

KW - developmental coordination disorder

KW - DCD

KW - sleep

KW - methylphenidate

U2 - 10.1097/DBP.0b013e3182a50a67

DO - 10.1097/DBP.0b013e3182a50a67

M3 - Article

VL - 34

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JO - Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics

JF - Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics

SN - 0196-206X

ER -