Acute and chronic effects of exercise on appetite, energy intake, and appetite-related hormones: The modulating effect of adiposity, sex, and habitual physical activity

James Dorling, David R. Broom, Stephen F. Burns, David J. Clayton, Kevin Deighton, Lewis J. James, James A. King, Masashi Miyashita, Alice E. Thackray, Rachel L. Batterham, David J. Stensel

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

125 Citations (Scopus)
4 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Exercise facilitates weight control, partly through effects on appetite regulation. Single bouts of exercise induce a short-term energy deficit without stimulating compensatory effects on appetite, whilst limited evidence suggests that exercise training may modify subjective and homeostatic mediators of appetite in directions associated with enhanced meal-induced satiety. However, a large variability in responses exists between individuals. This article reviews the evidence relating to how adiposity, sex, and habitual physical activity modulate exercise-induced appetite, energy intake, and appetite-related hormone responses. The balance of evidence suggests that adiposity and sex do not modify appetite or energy intake responses to acute or chronic exercise interventions, but individuals with higher habitual physical activity levels may better adjust energy intake in response to energy balance perturbations. The effect of these individual characteristics and behaviours on appetite-related hormone responses to exercise remains equivocal. These findings support the continued promotion of exercise as a strategy for inducing short-term energy deficits irrespective of adiposity and sex, as well as the ability of exercise to positively influence energy balance over the longer term. Future well-controlled studies are required to further ascertain the potential mediators of appetite responses to exercise.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1140
Number of pages21
JournalNutrients
Volume10
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 22 Aug 2018
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Funder

The research was supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Leicester Biomedical Research Centre. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health.

Keywords

  • Appetite
  • Appetite-related hormones
  • Energy balance
  • Energy compensation
  • Energy intake
  • Exercise
  • Physical activity
  • Weight control

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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