AB stacked few layer graphene growth by chemical vapor deposition on single crystal Rh(1 1 1) and electronic structure characterization

Apostolis Kordatos, Nicolas Kelaidis, Sigiava Aminalragia Giamini, Jose Marquez-Velasco, Evangelia Xenogiannopoulou, Polychronis Tsipas, George Kordas, Athanasios Dimoulas

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Graphene synthesis on single crystal Rh(1 1 1) catalytic substrates is performed by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) at 1000 °C and atmospheric pressure. Raman analysis shows full substrate coverage with few layer graphene. It is found that the cool-down rate strongly affects the graphene stacking order. When lowered, the percentage of AB (Bernal) -stacked regions increases, leading to an almost full AB stacking order. When increased, the percentage of AB-stacked graphene regions decreases to a point where almost a full non AB-stacked graphene is grown. For a slow cool-down rate, graphene with AB stacking order and good epitaxial orientation with the substrate is achieved. This is indicated mainly by Raman characterization and confirmed by Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) imaging. Additional Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) topography data confirm that the grown graphene is mainly an AB-stacked structure. The electronic structure of the graphene/Rh(1 1 1) system is examined by Angle resolved Photo-Emission Spectroscopy (ARPES), where σ and π bands of graphene, are observed. Graphene's ΓK direction is aligned with the ΓK direction of the substrate, indicating no significant contribution from rotated domains.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)251-256
Number of pages6
JournalApplied Surface Science
Early online date4 Feb 2016
Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 2016


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  • CVD
  • Graphene
  • Rhodium
  • Stacking
  • STM

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films

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