A taxonomy of validation strategies to ensure the safe operation of highly automated vehicles

Felix Batsch, Stratis Kanarachos, Madeline Cheah, Roberto Ponticelli, Mike Blundell

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    20 Citations (Scopus)
    598 Downloads (Pure)


    Self-driving cars are on the horizon, making it necessary to consider safety assurance and homologation of these autonomously operating vehicles. In this study, we systematically review literature that proposes new methods for these areas. The available methods were categorized into a novel taxonomy, dividing them into the strategies of combinatorial testing, robustness testing and search-based testing. We analyzed the literature in regard to modeling capabilities, targeted automation subsystem, targeted driving task level and the metrics used for criticality evaluation and coverage of the scenario space. We found that there are significant differences and shortcoming in the modeling capabilities of the existing research and that methods of each strategy usually target a specific driving task level. Additionally the criticality assessment of scenario-based validation methods was examined, revealing the need for more comprehensive metrics to assess complex scenarios. The developed taxonomy furthers the understanding in different scenario-based testing approaches for automated vehicles and serves as a guide for future research.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)14-33
    Number of pages20
    JournalJournal of Intelligent Transportation Systems
    Issue number1
    Early online date20 Mar 2020
    Publication statusPublished - 2 Jan 2022

    Bibliographical note

    This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems. on 20/03/2020, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/15472450.2020.1738231

    Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.


    • highly automated driving
    • intelligent transportation systems
    • scenario based testing
    • taxonomy
    • test case generation


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