A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression of the impact of diurnal intermittent fasting during Ramadan on body weight in healthy subjects aged 16 years and above

Haitham A Jahrami, Joud Alsibai, Cain C T Clark, Mo'ez Al-Islam E Faris

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    7 Citations (Scopus)
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    Abstract

    PURPOSE: Studies on the effect of Ramadan diurnal intermittent fasting (RDIF) on body weight have yielded conflicting results. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the effect size of body weight changes in healthy, non-athletic Muslims practicing Ramadan fasting, and to assess the effect of covariates such as age, sex, fasting time duration, season, and country, using subgroup analysis, and meta-regression. Covariate adjustments were performed to explain the variability of weight change in response to Ramadan fasting.

    METHODS: CINAHL, Cochrane, EBSCOhost, EMBASE, Google Scholar, ProQuest Medical, PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were searched from date of inception in 1950 to the end of August 2019.

    RESULTS: Eighty-five studies, conducted in 25 countries during 1982-2019, were identified. RDIF yielded a significant, but small reduction in body weight (K = 85, number of subjects, N = 4176 (aged 16-80 years), Hedges' g =- 0.360, 95% confidence interval (CI) - 0.405 to - 0.315, I2 = 45.6%), this effect size translates into difference in means of - 1.022 kg (95% CI - 1.164 kg to - 0.880 kg). Regression analysis for moderator covariates revealed that fasting time (min/day) is a significant (P < 0.05) moderator for weight change at the end of Ramadan, while age and sex are not. Variable effects for the season and country were found.

    CONCLUSION: RDIF may confer a significant small reduction in body weight in non-athletic healthy people aged 16 years and above, directly associated with fasting time and variably correlated with the season, and country.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)2291-2316
    Number of pages26
    JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
    Volume59
    Issue number6
    Early online date10 Mar 2020
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2020

    Bibliographical note

    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02216-1

    Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.

    Keywords

    • Body weight
    • Caloric restriction
    • Diurnal intermittent fasting
    • Meta-analysis
    • Obesity
    • Ramadan
    • Systematic review

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Medicine (miscellaneous)
    • Nutrition and Dietetics

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