A review on dissimilar laser welding of steel-copper, steel-aluminum, aluminum-copper, and steel-nickel for electric vehicle battery manufacturing

Amirhossein Sadeghian, Naveed Iqbal

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    95 Citations (Scopus)
    1129 Downloads (Pure)


    The electric vehicle (EV) battery systems are complex assemblies of dissimilar materials in which battery cells are connected using several thousand interconnect joints. Every single joint influences the functionality and efficiency of the whole battery system, making the joining process crucial. Laser welding is considered a desirable choice for EV battery manufacturing due to its non-contact nature, high energy density, precise control over the heat input, and ease of automation. However, incompatible thermos-physical properties of dissimilar materials used in battery tabs and interconnectors pose a significant challenge for achieving complete metallurgical bond. Furthermore, the formation of undesirable weld microstructures such as hard and brittle intermetallic compounds (IMCs) substantially undermines the structural, electrical, and thermal characteristics of battery joints. This paper reviews the fundamental difficulties and latest developments in dissimilar laser welding of steel-copper, steel-aluminum, aluminum-copper, and steel-nickel, some of the potential joint combinations in EV battery pack manufacturing. The weld microstructure and common metallurgical defects, as well as mechanical and electrical properties of joints are discussed. In addition, the effects of laser welding process parameters on the joint properties and the applicability of various interlayers and coatings in laser welding of battery materials are assessed.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number107595
    JournalOptics and Laser Technology
    Early online date18 Oct 2021
    Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022

    Bibliographical note

    NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Optics and Laser Technology. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Optics and Laser Technology, 146, (2022) DOI: 10.1016/j.optlastec.2021.107595

    © 2021, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

    Publisher Copyright:
    © 2021 Elsevier Ltd


    • Aluminium
    • Copper
    • Electric vehicle battery
    • Laser welding
    • Nickel
    • Steel

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
    • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
    • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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