A review on battery thermal management and its digital improvement‐based cyber hierarchy and interactional network

Yulong Zhang, Fengwei Liang, Shen Li, Cheng Zhang, Shifang Zhang, Xinhua Liu, Shupeng Zhao, Shichun Yang, Yuhua Xia, Jiayuan Lin, Bin Guo, Hanchao Cheng, Mingyue Wang, Meng Jiang, Dan Wang

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    The temperature has a significant influence on the performance of lithium-ion batteries (LiBs). Meanwhile, the heat-generated accumulation in the battery can trigger the battery's thermal runaway. Hence, the battery thermal management system (BTMS) is essential to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the battery. This paper comprehensively reviewed key technologies of BTMS and proposed a novel digital solution to improve the battery system performance. Firstly, the heat generation mechanisms and the thermal models were reviewed. Then, this paper focuses on a review of liquid cooling thermal management methods. Simultaneously, the solid-liquid phase change gas-liquid phase change is also summarized in the phase change material cooling system, and a summary is presented for the existing novel phase change cooling systems. Additionally, the preheating methods to heat the LiBs at low temperatures and the emergency battery thermal barriers upon thermal runaway were discussed. Eventually, a new approach for the BTMS leveraging from the Cyber Hierarchy and Interactional Network framework is indicated and constructed the digital twin reflecting physical battery to improve the LiBs temperature control strategies. Besides, this paper provides a new direction for the design of BTMS through vehicle-side sensing, edge computing, and cloud-based digital twin three levels.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)11529-11555
    Number of pages27
    JournalInternational Journal of Energy Research
    Issue number9
    Early online date19 Apr 2022
    Publication statusPublished - Jul 2022

    Bibliographical note

    This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Zhang, Y, Liang, F, Li, S, Zhang, C, Zhang, S, Liu, X, Zhao, S, Yang, S, Xia, Y, Lin, J, Guo, B, Cheng, H, Wang, M, Jiang, M & Wang, D 2022, 'A review on battery thermal management and its digital improvement‐based cyber hierarchy and interactional network', International Journal of Energy Research, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 11529-11555., which has been published in final form at https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/er.7957. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions. This article may not be enhanced, enriched or otherwise transformed into a derivative work, without express permission from Wiley or by statutory rights under applicable legislation. Copyright notices must not be removed, obscured or modified. The article must be linked to Wiley’s version of record on Wiley Online Library and any embedding, framing or otherwise making available the article or pages thereof by third parties from platforms, services and websites other than Wiley Online Library must be prohibited.


    Funding Information: National Natural Science Foundation of China, Grant/Award Number: U1864213


    • battery thermal management system
    • battery thermal model
    • cyber hierarchy and interactional network
    • digital-twin
    • emergency battery thermal barrier
    • heat generation mechanism
    • lithium-ion battery


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