A Review of Exercise as Medicine in Cardiovascular Disease: Pathology and Mechanism

Piotr Gronek, Dariusz Wieliński, Piotr Cygański, Andrzej Rynkiewicz, Adam Zając, Adam Maszczyk, Joanna Gronek, Robert Podstawski, Wojciech Czarny, Štefan Balkó, Cain Clark, Roman Celka

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    26 Citations (Scopus)
    126 Downloads (Pure)


    Background: Physical inactivity and resultant lower energy expenditure contribute unequivocally to cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease and stroke, which are considered major causes of disability and mortality worldwide. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of physical activity (PA) and exercise on different aspects of health - genetics, endothelium function, blood pressure, lipid concentrations, glucose intolerance, thrombosis, and self - satisfaction. Materials and Methods: In this article, we conducted a narrative review of the influence PA and exercise have on the cardiovascular system, risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, searching the online databases; Web of Science, PubMed and Google Scholar, and, subsequently, discuss possible mechanisms of this action. Results and Discussion: Based on our narrative review of literature, discussed the effects of PA on telomere length, nitric oxide synthesis, thrombosis risk, blood pressure, serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides levels, and indicated possible mechanisms by which physical training may lead to improvement in chronic cardiovascular diseases. Conclusion: PA is effective for the improvement of exercise tolerance, lipid concentrations, blood pressure, it may also reduce the serum glucose level and risk of thrombosis, thus should be advocated concomitant to, or in some cases instead of, traditional drug-therapy.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)327-340
    Number of pages14
    JournalAging and Disease
    Issue number2
    Early online date2 Jul 2019
    Publication statusPublished - Apr 2020

    Bibliographical note

    © 2019 Gronek P et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License,
    which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


    • Aging
    • Cardiovascular disease
    • Longevity
    • Physical activity
    • Public health problem

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
    • Geriatrics and Gerontology
    • Clinical Neurology
    • Cell Biology


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