A participatory co-creation model to drive community engagement in rural indigenous schools: A case study in Sarawak

Jacey Lynn Minoi, Fitri Mohamad, Sylvester Arnab, John Phoa, L. Morini, J. Beaufoy, T. Lim, S. Clarke

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This paper presents the formulated ‘play-to-engage’ model for indigenous community engagement that incorporates factors in cultural protocols and game design thinking. The hybrid model of the participatory co-creation model was formulated in the study that had been rolled out in two rural primary schools in West Borneo. These schools are located in remote villages, away from urban amenities, and technological affordances and resources are limited. There are more than twenty culturally-diversed indigenous tribes in Borneo. Although it is a known fact that indigenous cultures, including those in Borneo, have many cultural protocols and distinctive custom practices, it is still a challenge for researchers who work with such communities to understand, adhere to and follow the cultural protocols. The model looks at incorporating gameplay and culture protocols to drive community engagement. Since play is universal, the creation of a trustworthy partnership between the community and researchers was established through the use of play during the engagement process. Narratives captured in the study represented reflection, problem solving and creativity in the interactions with the indigenous communities, based on the developed indicators of the ‘play-to-engage’ model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)157-167
Number of pages11
JournalElectronic Journal of e-Learning
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2019


  • Culture
  • Indigenous community engagement
  • Participatory co-creation
  • Play-to-engage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Computer Science Applications

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  • Prizes

    Gamification Award for Education and Learning 2019

    Sylvester Arnab (Recipient), Samantha Clarke (Recipient), Alex Masters (Recipient), Jayne Beaufoy (Recipient) & Luca Morini (Recipient), 28 Jan 2020

    Prize: Prize (including medals and awards)

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