Due to its Lagrangian nature, Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) has been used to solve a variety of fluid-dynamic processes with highly nonlinear deformation such as debris flows, wave breaking and impact, multi-phase mixing processes, jet impact, flooding and tsunami inundation, and fluid–structure interactions. In this study, the SPH method is applied to solve the two-dimensional Shallow Water Equations (SWEs), and the solution proposed was validated against two open-source case studies of a 2-D dry-bed dam break with particle splitting and a 2-D dam break with a rectangular obstacle downstream. In addition to the improvement and optimization of the existing algorithm, the CPU-OpenMP parallel computing was also implemented, and it was proven that the CPU-OpenMP parallel computing enhanced the performance for solving the SPH-SWE model, after testing it against three large sets of particles involved in the computational process. The free surface and velocities of the experimental flows were simulated accurately by the numerical model proposed, showing the ability of the SPH model to predict the behavior of debris flows induced by dam-breaks. This validation of the model is crucial to confirm its use in predicting landslides’ behavior in field case studies so that it will be possible to reduce the damage that they cause. All the changes made in the SPH-SWEs method are made open-source in this paper so that more researchers can benefit from the results of this research and understand the characteristics and advantages of the solution proposed.
Bibliographical noteThis is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
FunderThis work was supported by the following projects: National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2017YFC0404303), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51869025, 51769028, 51868066), Qinghai Science and Technology Projects (No. 2018-ZJ-710), Youth Fund of Qinghai University (Grant No. 2017-QGY-7), National Key Laboratory Project for Water Sand Science and Water and Hydropower Engineering, Tsinghua University (Grant No. sklhse-2018-B-03), Beijing Institute of Structure and Environment Engineering Fund(Grant No. BQ2019001).
- dam break
- numerical modelling
- computational time