A new approach to formulation of complex fuel surrogates

Nawar Hasan Imran Al-Esawi, Mansour Al Qubeissi

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    12 Citations (Scopus)
    53 Downloads (Pure)


    This paper presents a new approach to the formulation of fuel surrogates in application to gasoline, diesel, and their biofuel blends (including blends of biodiesel/diesel and ethanol/gasoline). This new approach, described as a ‘Complex Fuel Surrogates Model (CFSM)’, is based on a modified version of the Multi-Dimensional Quasi-Discrete Model (MDQDM). The new approach is aimed to reduce the full composition of fuel to a much smaller number of components based on their mass fractions to formulate fuel surrogates. The formulated surrogates for gasoline and blended ethanol/gasoline fuels matched the data of the full compositions of the same fuels for droplet lifetime, surface temperature, density, vapour pressure, H/C ratio, molar weight and research octane number, using the CFSM. Also, the cetane number and viscosity of diesel and biodiesel/diesel blends were mimicked by their suggested surrogates. The results were verified, with up to 7.2% errors between the two sets of predicted droplet lifetimes: surrogates and full compositions of fuels.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number118923
    Number of pages12
    Early online date14 Aug 2020
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2021

    Bibliographical note

    NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Fuel. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Fuel, 283, (2021) DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2020.118923

    © 2020, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/


    Institute for Future Transport and Cities, Coventry University , United Kingdom (Project Ref. ECR019


    • Biodiesel
    • Combustion
    • Diesel
    • Ethanol
    • Fuel surrogates
    • Gasoline

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Chemical Engineering(all)
    • Fuel Technology
    • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
    • Organic Chemistry


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