A multilevel Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo Poisson modelling of factors associated with components of antenatal care offered to pregnant women in Nigeria

Omon Stellamaris Fagbamigbe, Olugbenga Sunday Olaseinde, Oluwasomidoyin O. Bello, Vincent Setlhare, Jackline Mosinya Nyaberi, Anthony Ike Wegbom, Ayo Stephen Adebowale, Adeniyi Francis Fagbamigbe

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Background: The most recent WHO guideline on antenatal care (ANC) utilization reaffirmed the necessary and compulsory care and services a pregnant woman should receive to maximize the importance and gains of ANC. While most studies focused on the time of initiation and number of ANC contacts, emphasis was rarely placed on the components of ANC offered to women. This study assessed how complete the components of ANC received by pregnant women are as a proxy for the quality of ANC services offered in Nigeria. We also assessed the clustering of the components and state-level differentials and inequalities in the components of ANC received in Nigeria. Methods: We used nationally representative cross-sectional data from the 2018 Nigeria Demographic Health Survey. We analysed the data of 11,867 women who had at least one ANC contact during the most recent pregnancy within five years preceding the survey. The assessed components were tetanus injection, blood pressure, urine test, blood test, iron supplement, malaria intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp), and told about danger signs. Others are intestinal parasite drugs (IPD)intermittent and HIV/PMTCT counsel. Descriptive statistics, bivariable and multivariable multilevel Bayesian Monte Carlo Poisson models were used. Results: In all, 94% had blood pressure measured, 91% received tetanus injection, had iron supplement-89%, blood test-87%, urine test-86%, IPTp-24%, danger signs-80%, HIV/PMTC-82% and IPD-22%. The overall prevalence of receiving all 9 components was 5% and highest in Ogun (24%) and lowest in Kebbi state (0.1%). The earlier the initiation of ANC, the higher the number of contacts, and the higher the quality of ANC received. Respondents with higher education have a 4% (adjusted incidence risk ratio (aIRR): 1.04, 95% credible interval (CrI): 1.01–1.09) higher risk of receiving more components of ANC relative to those with no education. The risk of receiving more ANC components was 5% (aIRRR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01–1.10) higher among pregnant women aged 40 to 49 years than those aged 15 to 19 years. Women who decide their healthcare utilization alone had a 2% higher risk of getting more components than those whose spouses are the only decision taker of healthcare use. Other significant factors were household wealth status, spouse education, ethnicity, place of ANC, and skill of ANC provider. Pregnant women who had their blood pressure measured were very likely to have blood and urine tests, tetanus injections, iron supplements, and HIV talks. Conclusions: Only one in every 20 pregnant women received all the 9 ANC components with wide disparities and inequalities across the background characteristics and the States of residence in Nigeria. There is a need to ensure that all pregnant women receive adequate components. Stakeholders should increase supplies, train, and create awareness among ANC providers and pregnant women in particular.

Original languageEnglish
Article number728
Number of pages18
JournalBMC Health Services Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 5 Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

© The Author(s) 2023. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativeco mmons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data


  • ANC components
  • ANC contacts
  • Antenatal care
  • Nigeria
  • Quality of care
  • Supplements
  • WHO guidelines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy


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